Sharpening an Axe in Wilderness Survival
An axe can be extremely dangerous when it is not sharp. So it is important to keep your axe sharp at all times. Here are some tips on Sharpening An Axe. Get rid of burrs using a file. Use a whetstone to impart the sharp edge. Remember, a file is a one way tool. It only works when pushed, not pulled. Always sharpen inwards. Finish with a smooth stone using a circular motion.

Bone Tools in Wilderness Survival
You can cut bones with stone tools or grind with coarse stones. A shoulder blade makes an ideal shape for a saw. Split in half, then cut teeth with knife. Ribs are best for scrapping into points. Bone Needle : Choose right size bone. Sharpen one end to a point. Burn the eye opening with hot wire.

Bad Camping Places in Wilderness Survival
Don't camp too close to water. Heavy rainfall may cause flash floods. Insect problems close to water. Check around to make sure you don't camp near a bee or hornet nest. Stay away from solitary trees which attract lightning. Don't camp on exposed hilltops. Deep hollows are more prone to frost at night. Stay away from spurs which lead down to water as they are often animal routes.

Clothing in Wilderness Survival
Cutting a head hole in a blanket or carpet will allow you to use as a poncho. To make a grass skirt, you can hang long leaf strips around a belt. Shoe soles can be cut from rubber tyres. Always salvage any blankets, seat covers, towels or curtains from any wreckage. To improve insulation you can stuff grass, animal hair, feathers, etc between layers of clothing. To waterproof, you can use plastic bags, sheets, or the inner layer of birch bark.

Clouds in Wilderness Survival
Altocumulius Clouds : These are fair weather clouds. Usually appear after a storm. 1 - 4 miles, height. Cirrocumulus Clouds : Indicate fair weather. Usually follow a storm. Look like rippled sand. 3.1 - 4.9 miles, height. Cumulonimbus Clouds : These are low thunder clouds. Strong wind, thunder, lightning and hail. 0.9 - 6.2 miles, height. Cumulus Clouds : Fluffy, white clouds. When widely separated they usually indicate fair weather. If large and heavy headed, they may produce showers. 1.6 miles, height. Cirrus Clouds : High, wispy clouds. Fine weather. 3.1 - 5.5 miles, height. Cittostratus Clouds : Made up of ice particles. Look like white veins. 3.1 - 5.5 miles, height. Stratus Clouds : Low clouds. Uniform layer. Look like fog in the air. Not a rain cloud, but may sometimes drizzle. 1.6 miles, height. Altostratus Clouds : If wet weather is approaching, the cloud will darken and thicken. 1.6 - 3.7 miles, height. Nimbostratus Clouds : Look like low, dark blankets. Indicate rain. 0.9 - 3.1 miles, height. Stratocumulus Clouds : Usually covers the whole sky in a low, lumpy, rolling mass. 1.6 miles, height.

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Cooking Fires in Wilderness Survival
Hobo Stove : Punch some holes around the bottom and in the bottom of a drum. Then cut out a panel on one side about 3 inches from the bottom. Place the drum on a ring of stones for ventilation and stoke the fire through the panel. Trench Fire : Dig a trench about one foot wide, two feet long, and about two feet deep. Fill the bottom of the trench with a layer of rocks. Build your fire on the rocks. Placing a spit across the embers is very ideal for a roast.

Water Filter in Wilderness Survival
To build a fairly good water filter you need sphagnum moss, peat and charcoal. In addition you need some sort of container. Start by making a number of small holes in the bottom of the container. Also remove the top of the can if that is what you are using. Place a layer of sphagnum moss in the bottom of the container. Fill the can app. 2/3 with a mixture of crushed charcoal (not powder, just fine gravel-size) and peat. Add some more sphagnum moss on top of the peat-charcoal layer. Place a layer of small pebbles (1/4" or so) on top. The filter is now ready for use. Gently pour water on top, collect in bottom. Let a couple of volumes of water flow thought first before any is collected and used.

Fires in Wilderness Survival
Fire is an essential part of wilderness survival. It cooks food, boils water, provides protection and warmth, and is a way of signaling. In preparing a fire, always ensure good ventilation. Prepare a fireplace where you have total control over the fire. Choose a sheltered site (except when signaling). You should never light a fire at the base of a tree. Make sure to clear all twigs, sticks, leaves, etc from around the fire for a distance of 6 feet. In windy conditions you should dig a trench to light your fire. You may also choose to encircle your fire with rocks. When building a fire, remember the fire triangle, one side is air, one side is heat, one side is fuel. If just one of these is removed, the fire will go out. You should use dry wood to get a fire going. Once established, mix with green and dried out damp wood. Hard woods burn over a long period and give out good heat. Soft wood will burn fast and give off too many sparks. Other Fuels : Peat : Found on moors. You need dry before you burn, needs ventilation when burning. Coal : Animal Droppings : You need dry well first, then mix with grass and leaves. Shales : Are rich in oil and burn readily. Matches are the best way to light a fire. Always matches carry in water proof containers. Strike a damp match by stabbing, not drawing. Sunlight through a lens can also ignite tinder. Preferably use a magnifying glass. Flint : Strike with steel and hot sparks will fly off into some dry grass to start a fire.

Fire Bow in Wilderness Survival
In using a Fire Bow it is the friction of a hardwood spindle rotated on a softwood base that produces wood dust tinder which then becomes heat. Making a Fire Bow : Make a small depression close to the end of baseboard. You should make sure to shape the spindle evenly. Make a bow from twine, shoelace, shoot or hide. Use a hollow piece of wood or stone to steady the top and exert downward pressure. Wind the bowstring once around the spindle. Kneel with one foot on baseboard. Then place the spindle in the depression, bear down lightly on the steadying piece while moving the bow backwards and forwards so the spindle spins. Continue bowing till a glowing tip drops on to the tinder, then gently blow till it ignites.

Food Preservation in Wilderness Survival
Do not store your food in excessive sunlight. Do not store food near excessive warmth or moisture. Do not store food where animals or insects may get to it. Keep a constant check on your food. Wrap food in airtight and waterproof containers. Drying : Dried foods are less likely to be affected by molds and maggots. With meat, you need cut off excessive fat and rub salt into it, then hang in a cool, dry place. Smoking will dehydrate the meat and give it a protective coating. Place nuts on hot rocks which have been heated in a fire. Turn the nuts till dried. Fruit and berries may be dried whole or sliced. Cut into slices, then dry in the sun or smoke dry. Vegetables may be preserved by boiling and then storing in salt water. Add salt until a potato will float.

Fungi in Wilderness Survival
You should always positively identify fungi before you eat. There are no reliable eating tests for fungi. Always reject suspicious or discolored parts. Avoid fungi with white gills. Avoid fungi that are decomposing. Clean, slice and boil. Make sure to cook fungi thoroughly. When storing fungi separate caps from stems. Place on rocks in the sun with caps gill side up. When dry you should store in air tight containers. Edible Fungi : Beefsteak Fungus. Giant Puffball. Chanterelle. Honey Fungus. Field Mushroom. Poisonous Fungi : Destroying Angel. Panther Cap. Fly Agaric. Death Cap. Leaden Entoloma.

Hand Drill in Wilderness Survival
Using a hardwood base, you should cut a V-shaped notch. For the spindle, use stem of hollow softwood with soft pith core. Roll the spindle with your hands into the depression. When the spindle tip starts to glow red, gently blow to ignite the tinder.

Hygiene in Wilderness Survival
Everyone needs take their equal turn at all jobs, including the unpleasant ones. Strict hygiene should be practiced at all times. Latrines must be kept away from the water supply, and downhill from the camp. Establish a point for collecting drinking water and make sure no-one washes upstream of it. Downstream choose a place for washing clothes and further down again choose a place for washing cooking utensils. After you defecate, cover with earth. If a latrine starts to smell, then dig a new one. Building a Urinal : Dig a hole two feet deep. Fill 18 inches full with large rocks. Fill with earth. Set in a bark cone as funnel, penetrating to the rocks.

Eating Insects in Wilderness Survival
Avoid the grubs that are found on the underside of leaves as they often secrete toxins. Very bright colored insects and grubs are usually poisonous. On the good side, insects are rich in protein, carbohydrates and fat. Insects are best found in moist shady spots and the nooks of trees. Avoid beetle grubs that look sick or are dead. Look for beetle grubs, "pale color, three short legs", in stumps or on trees with peeling bark. You should boil or roast. To eat a hairy caterpillar you should squeeze the extract from the skin. Ants : Must be cooked for ten minutes to destroy the poison. Grasshoppers, Locusts : Remove legs, antennae and wings. Roast to kill parasites. Termites : Break off pieces of termite nests and soak in water to force termites out. You should remove the wings from large termites before roasting, boiling or frying the termites. Bees : Nests are found in caves, hollow trees or under overhanging rock. The best time to raid the bees is at night. You should make a fire torch from grass and hold it close to the entrance so the nest fills with smoke, then seal the hole. Remove the wings, legs and sting from the dead bees before cooking. Snails : Are rich in proteins and minerals. Snails with bright colored shells may be poisonous. Avoid sea snails unless you can make a positive identification. Starve snails for a few days to bring out the poisons. Place in saltwater solution to clear out guts. Boil for ten minutes.

Protecting Against Invaders in Wilderness Survival
Be careful of fish in slow moving water, as they may be infected with tapeworms. Mosquito Protection : Keep covered at night. Fat, oil or mud will help repel insects. Brush off hairy caterpillars in the direction they are traveling. Hang clothing and foot ware off the ground to stop spiders, scorpions, etc from crawling in. Check boots before putting them on. Be careful putting hands in pockets. Never pull Leeches off, as the head my come off leaving the jaws in the bite. Remove with salt, alcohol or or burn them. Keep genitals covered in the water.

Wilderness Survival Kit
Your kit should be a small container sealed with adhesive tape. Pack the empty space with cotton wool. Medical Kit : Medicines should be in airtight container. Label medicines with dosage and expiry dates. Water purification tablets. Use when you are unable to boil the water. Matches : Use waterproof matches. Snap off half to save space. Signaling Flares : Needed to attract attention. Beware, these are explosives. Magnifying Glass : For starting a fire. Fish Hooks and Lines. Candles : You should cut square for packaging. Tallow candles can be eaten. Compass : Make sure you know how to use it exactly. Liquid filled with luminous light is best. Flint : Needles and Thread : Need several needles, one with large eye. Snare Wire : 3 feet, brass. Beta Light : Light emitting crystal for reading at night or as fish lure. Plasters : Waterproof and assorted in size. Saw : Flexible, Grease before storing. Condoms : Good water bags. Surgical Blades : Two of different sizes. Butterfly Sutures : Hold wounds together. Fuel : Solid fuel tablets in own stove container. Pouch : Waterproof. Mess Tin : Aluminum cooking utensil. Pencil Sized Torch : Reverse the batteries while in storage. Brew Kit : Tea, sugar, milk powder. Survival Bag. Food : Electrolite powder, tube of butter, chocolate, dehydrated meat.

Knives in Wilderness Survival
Knives have been used as tools and weapons since the Stone Age. The first known knives were flint or rock, chipped or ground to an edge, sometimes with a handle. Palaeolithic knives may also have been made from wood, bone or antler. Advances in smelting and metallurgy have led to blades made of bronze, iron, then steel and more exotic materials. Materials and designs have changed over time. The importance of knives as weapons has declined over time. Materials:
Knife blades are typically made of metal, but obsidian, glass, titanium, ceramic and plastics are also used. Most knife steel is tempered martensite. Stainless steel knives began gaining popularity during the second quarter of the twentieth century. Knife makers sometimes use titanium, cobalt, and other alloys. Some manufacturers, particularly of kitchen knives, make ceramic blades; the Ceramic knife blade is harder and stay sharp longer than steel, but because of their brittleness chip and break more readily. Knive Types:
A hunting knife is used to dress large game. Its blade often has a normal, mild curve or is curved and clipped. A stockman's knife is a versatile folding knife with three blades: a clip, a spey (blunted point, straight edge), and possibly a pen blade. A dive knife, diver's knife, or river knife is adapted for use in diving and watersports. Utility or multi-tool knives may contain several blades, as well as other tools such as pliers. A kukri is a Nepalese fighting and utility knife with a deep forward curve. A machete is a long, wide blade, used to chop through brush. Survival knives are sturdy, sometimes with a hollow handle filled with survival equipment. Knives in Wilderness Survival:
Knives are an important part of survival in the wild. Carry two knives. A multi-bladed penknife will come in handy. Take also a strong knife with a general purpose blade. Knives should have a good locked position. Keep your knife sharp. Don't damage it by throwing it around. Keep it cleaned and well oiled. Sandstone, quartz or granite will sharpen a knife. Sharpening:
Knives are sharpened by grinding against a hard rough surface, typically stone, or a soft surface with hard particles, such as sandpaper. For finer sharpening, a leather razor strap, or strop, is often used. The smaller the angle between the blade and stone, the sharper the knife will be, but the less side force is needed to bend the edge over or chip it off. Clamp-style sharpening tools use a clamp with several holes with pre-defined angles. The stone is mounted on a rod and is pulled through these holes, so that the angle remains consistent. Honing stones (also called whetstones) come in coarse and fine grits and can be described as hard or soft based on whether the grit comes free of the stone with use. Another sharpening tool is known as a honing steel. A honing steel is a type of hardened cylindrical rod used similarly to honing stones. For example, a butcher steel is a round file with the teeth running the long way, while a packer steel (used in the meat packer's industry) is a smooth, polished steel rod designed for straightening the turned edge of a knife, and is also useful for burnishing a newly finished edge. Because steels have a small diameter they exert high local pressure, and therefore affect the knife metal when used with very little force. They are intended for mild steel knives that are steeled several times a day, but are not well suited for today's tougher and harder steels. Stropping a knife is a finishing step. This is often done with a leather strap impregnated with abrasive compounds, but can be done on paper, cardstock, or even cloth in a pinch. It will not cut the edge significantly, but produces a very sharp edge with very little metal loss. It is useful when a knife is still sharp, but has lost that 'scary sharp' edge from use.

Splitting Logs in Wilderness Survival
You should stand behind the log with feet well apart and firmly braced. Swing downwards to cut the side away from you. Make sure log is secure so that it wont roll. Don't put your foot on it. To split a small log, angle it securely against a larger log.

Maps in Wilderness Survival
Always make sure to choose your maps very carefully. Make sure that you can interpret the maps completely. The scale on a walkers map is usually 1:50,000, which represents a distance 50,000 times greater on the ground. Not all the features are shown to scale. Some are given standardized widths. Map grids are based on "degrees of latitude and longitude" or on "ground measurements". Note : A compass does not point true north, but to magnetic north. This will vary depending on where you are in the world. If you do not have a map then you will need to make one of the terrain. Study the terrain, and fill the gaps as you gather the information. Make sure to mark as much useful information as possible. The sun rises in the north and sets in the south. In Northern hemisphere, at noon, the sun will be due south. In Southern hemisphere, at noon, it will be due north. If shadows move clockwise, you are in the northern hemisphere, if anti-clockwise then you are in the southern hemisphere. Plants may also give you a direction of north and south. They tend to grow towards the sun, so most growth will be to the south in the northern hemisphere, and north in the southern hemisphere. If, the moon rises before the sun has set, then, the illuminated side will be on the west. If the moon rises after midnight, the illuminated side will be on the east.

How to give Mouth-to-Mouth-and-Nose Resuscitation
Mouth-to-Mouth-and-Nose Resuscitation on a Child Under Age 8 or on an Infant. Place the child on a hard, flat surface. Look into the mouth and throat to ensure that the airway is clear. If an object is present, try to sweep it out with your fingers. If vomiting occurs, turn the child onto his or her side and sweep out the mouth with two fingers. Tilt the head back slightly to open the airway. Place your mouth tightly over the nose and mouth. Blow two quick, shallow breaths (smaller breaths than you would give to an adult). Watch for the chest to rise. Remove your mouth. Look for the chest to fall as the child exhales. Listen for the sounds of breathing. Feel for the childís breath on your cheek. If breathing does not start on its own, repeat the procedure. Mouth-to-Mouth Resuscitation on a Child Age 8 or Older or on an Adult Make sure the person is lying on a hard, flat surface. Look into the mouth and throat to ensure that the airway is clear. If an object is present, try to sweep it out with your fingers (wear disposable surgical gloves if they are available). If vomiting occurs, turn the person on his or her side and sweep out the mouth with two fingers. Do not place your finger in the mouth if the person is rigid or is having a seizure. Tilt the head back slightly to open the airway. Put upward pressure on the jaw to pull it forward. Pinch the nostrils closed with thumb and index finger. Place your mouth tightly over the personís mouth. Use a mouthpiece if one is available. Blow two quick breaths and watch for the personís chest to rise. Release the nostrils. Look for the personís chest to fall as he or she exhales. Listen for the sounds of breathing. Feel for the personís breath on your cheek. If the person does not start breathing on his or her own, repeat the procedure.

Walking at Night in Wilderness Survival
It takes around 30 to 40 minutes for your eyes to get accustomed to the darkness. If using a torch, cover with a red filter so as to preserve your night sight. Vision is distorted in the dark. Look at the side, not direct on objects, edges show clearer at night. Keep to open country where it`s brighter. Use your ears and smells. Walk slowly and test each step.

On the Move in the Wilderness
When lost in the wilderness, it is best to stay where you are and wait for rescue. In the long term, if if there are other factors, you may have to make a move. If you know where you want to go, then head there. But if you have no clear idea, then follow water downstream. When you leave a camp site, make sure to leave information such as how many in the group, what condition everyone is in, and which direction you have moved in. Set off in settled weather. Move in groups, and check regularly to see if group is still intact.

Plants in Wilderness Survival
Every person has a different level of resistance to toxic substances. Some persons may be more sensitive to a particular plant. Some animals can eat plants that are poisonous to humans. Boiling plants removes many poisons, but not all. Some plants that are red are poisonous, but not all. Avoid plants with milky sap. Avoid fruit divided into five segments, Avoid mature bracken as it destroys vitamin B. Generally it is best to avoid mushrooms. Mushroom identification is very difficult. Some mushrooms cause death quickly. Some mushrooms have no known antidote. Poisonous plants that cause contact dermatitis are : Poison ivy. Poison oak. Poison sumac. Rengas tree. Signs and symptoms of ingestion poisoning can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, depressed heartbeat and respiration, headaches, hallucinations, dry mouth, unconsciousness, coma, and death. If you suspect plant poisoning, try to remove the poisonous material from the victim's mouth and stomach as soon as possible. Induce vomiting by tickling the back of throat. Dilute the poison by administering large quantities of water or milk. The following plants can cause ingestion poisoning if eaten : Castor bean. Chinaberry. Foxglove. Hemlock. Lantana. Manchineel. Oleander. Pangi. Physic nut. Poison and water hemlocks. Rosary pea. Thorn Apple. Strychnine tree.

Edible Plants Shepherd`s Purse. White Mustard. Primrose. Dandelion. Wild Sorrel. Chicory. Curled Dock.

Testing Plants in the Wild
If ever in doubt, do not eat. Only one person should test the plants. Don't eat old, withered plants. Check to make sure the plant is not worm eaten. If the plant smells like bitter smell, through it away. Rub some of the plant juice on the skin. Throw away if an adverse reaction happens. Next, try a small portion on tip of tongue, lips, or corner of mouth, if there is some sort of discomfort, then through away.

Water from Plants
The hollow joints of bamboo often fill with water. Cup shaped plants will catch and store water. Cut a grapevine high then low about six foot in length. Water will pour into your mouth. You can acquire about Ĺ pint from this length if you cut it off again when it gels over. You cut it high first, otherwise the plants defense mechanism, capillary action, draws it back up before you can drain it. Beware that not all vines have drinkable water. In Australia you will find the desert oak, water tree and bloodwood have their roots near the surface. Cut the roots in 12 inch lengths after removing from ground. Strip the bark and suck out the moisture. Coconut, buri and nipa palms all contain a surgery fluid that you can drink. Bend a flowering stalk downwards and cut off the tip. If you cut a thin slice off the stalk every 12 hours the flow will be renewed. You should collect a quart each day. Cacti : Water can be found in the fruit and body but you need be careful as some cacti are poisonous.

Making a Raft in Wilderness Survival
To make a raft use bamboo, uprooted trees, or tops of trunks. Make sure to test your raft in safe water before setting off on a journey. Make sure to tie all equipment very securely on the raft. Check to see nothing is hanging over the edge. Make sure each person on the raft has a bowline securing them to the raft. In rapids, it is best not to tie on. Bamboo Raft : Make holes in middle and near the ends. Pass stakes through holes to connect canes. Using vines or twine, lash each cane to the stakes. Make a second layer.

Crossing a River in Wilderness Survival
You must always take care when crossing rivers. Try to cross in the most shallow place. Test water depth with a pole. Avoid estuaries as they have strong currents. Also, do not cross exactly opposite the point you are trying to reach, allow for the current. Water surface movement may give an indication of what may lie beneath. Waves that appear to stay in one position may indicate a boulder beneath. Ice cold water is dangerous, be careful. When crossing, use a stick to help with balance. Wear your boots when crossing as they give better grip. Turn at a slight angle to your destination. The current will take you there. Watch out for submerged branches.

Salt in Wilderness Survival
Salt is essential for survival. First symptoms of salt deficiency are muscle cramps, dizziness, nausea and tiredness. Take a pinch of salt in a pint of water. Never swallow salt tablets whole, break them up first. Inland salt can be obtained from the roots of hickory trees. You can also get it second hand through animal blood. Or evaporate sea water to get salt crystals.

Shelters in Wilderness Survival
If you are making your way to safety you may want to build temporary shelters at each stopover. Bough Shelters : Branches that are partly broken or sweep down to the ground can provide temporary shelter. Make sure branches wont fall off the tree. Fallen Trunks : Logs make a good windbreak. Place at the right angle to the wind. Dig a small hollow in the ground on the leeward side. Root Shelter : Spreading roots at the base of a fallen tree make good windbreak. Try fill in the sides between the roots. Hollows : Make sure you deflect any downhill flow of water. Make a roof to keep the warmth in and rain out. Drainage : Dig a run off channel around any shelter that is on or below ground level. Stone Barriers : Building a stone wall around a hollow will give you more room. Pack between the stones with turf and foliage. Sapling Shelter : Select two lines of saplings, tie the tops together to form a frame for sheeting. You can weigh down the edges of the sheeting with rocks or wood. If you have no sheeting, place the saplings close together and weave branches between them and fill with ferns. Tepees : Leave an opening at top for ventilation. Tie three or more angled support poles where they cross to make a cone. Cover with sheeting, hides or birch bark.

Signaling in Wilderness Survival
SOS = Save Our Souls. Mayday, is the signal used in radio transmissions. Signals should be repeated in groups of three. The International Mountain Distress Signal is six whistles, waves, etc a minute, followed by minutes silence, then repeat. Choose a high point for light signals. Signals at top of ridges should be seen from all directions. For signaling with fires, you should place three fires in a triangle at equal distance apart. Build earth wall around fires. Smoke is good for signalling at daytime. Light smoke will best stand out against forest or dark earth. Use greens. Dark smoke will show best against desert sand or snow. Use oil or rubber. Ground To Air Code : I : Serious Injury. II : Need medical help. A : Affirmative. N : Negative. F : Need food and water. LL : All is fine. X : Not able to move on.

Making a Sledge in Wilderness Survival
You should take two forked branches, remove one side of each fork for runners. Make smooth. Lash on the cross members. You should add at least one diagonal for strength.

Snake Hole Fire in Wilderness Survival
The snake hole fire is excellent for smoke preserving meat and fish. In the side of a earth bank you should dig a chamber about 18 inches deep. Insert a stick down into the chamber from above. Remove it to make a chimney. It is best to site the entrance downwind in windy conditions.

Making Soap in Wilderness Survival
Two essential ingredients are needed for soap, "oil and alkali". The alkali can be made by burning wood or seaweed to produce ash. The oil can be animal or vegetable. How to Make : Wash the ash with water. Strain and boil with the oil. Simmer till the excess liquid evaporates. Allow to cool. To make the soap antiseptic, add pine resin.

The Stars
Northern Hemisphere : Groups of stars remain visible throughout the night. They move around the Polar Star, which seems to be not moving. The pole star is located almost above polar north. The Big Dipper, The Plough, the Orion, and the Cassiopeia all circle the Pole Star. The best to use to navigate are the Big Dipper and The Plough. Southern Sky : In the Southern Sky, the Southern Cross provides us with directions to the South. It is a constellation of five stars.

Stone Tools in Wilderness Survival
You should start by splitting a cobble with a blow from a hard smooth pebble, so as to form a flat face. You can shape by hitting edge on with another stone. Create a platform on one side. Striking with softer stones, hit and press small fales away. Flakes may be used as arrowheads.

Tree Cutting in Wilderness Survival
Before starting any cutting, you should first check for hornets nests and dead branches. Clear away creepers. You should cut from both sides of the tree. Chop a notch on one side of the tree at a 45 degree angle. Make a notch on the other side of the tree, but at a lower level. The notch on the lower side is the direction you want the tree to fall. Note that a tree with most of it`s branches on one side will fall that way. When cutting, alternate the angle of strokes so as to prevent the axe from jamming.

Trees in Wilderness Survival
The thin inner bark of some trees may be eaten in spring. Trees with the best inner bark are : Birch. Aspen, Tamarack, Maple. Birch bark may also be used in large strips to make shelters. Some trees when cut will bleed a sap which will harden into a lump. If it`s soluble in water it is a gum, but if not, it is resin. Both are nutritious. Boil fresh green spruce needles in water so as to make a tea that is rich in vitamin C. Poisonous Trees ; Moosewood. Hickory. Laburnum. Cedar. Yew.

Tropical Shelters in Wilderness Survival
In the jungle or rainforest, you need a raised bed to keep off the damp ground, which will also be infested with insects. Bamboo : Excellent building material. Bamboo can be used for supports, roofing, flooring and walls. You should split the bamboo to make roofing and guttering to collect the rainwater. Split stems that are laid alternately to interlock form waterproof pantiles. You should flatten split bamboo for the walls, floors or shelving. Cut vertically through the joints every half inch for this. Be careful when collecting bamboo as it is razor sharp. Thatch of Leaves : Large leaves make good roofs and walls in the jungle. The bigger and broader the better. Atap is the best to use. Use horizontally, splitting each leaf in two, from the tip tear it in two halves down the length. Split from the thinner end. Layer the halves of Atap closely together on a roof frame.

Water Survival
Water should be one of your first priorities in survival. An adult may survive three weeks without food, but only three days without water. How to Retain Fluid : Don't smoke. Do not lie on hot places. Stay in shade where possible. Don't drink alcohol. Only talk when needed. Only eat as needed. Finding Water : Dig in dry stream beds. Look in valley bottoms where the water will naturally flow. Look in lush vegetation on cliffs for springs. Take sips of water, don't guzzle. Be careful of areas of water with no green vegetation around it. Bowl water. Converging game trails often lead to water. Grain eating birds are always close to water. They drink at dawn or dusk. A column of ants moving up a tree are heading to a reservoir of water. Trees can draw water from 50 feet or more below the ground. Tie a plastic bag around a healthy, leafy branch. Evaporation from the leaves produces condensation in the bag. Ice produces twice as much water then snow for half the heat. Cut a grapevine high then low about six foot in length. Water will pour into your mouth. You can acquire about Ĺ pint from this length if you cut it off again when it gels over. You cut it high first, otherwise the plants defense mechanism, capillary action, draws it back up before you can drain it. Solar Stills : Look for a sandy wash or a depression where rainwater might collect. Dig a pit approximately 4 feet wide and 3 feet deep. In the center of the pit, dig another small hole deep enough for the water container. Place the container inside, then run the tubing from the container to the outside of the pit. If there is tape available, tape the tubing to the inside of the container. Blanket the pit with the plastic sheet, evenly on all sides, but not touching the bottom of the pit. Anchor the corners. Find a small rounded rock to place in the center of the sheet, over the water container. Gently push down on the center weight until the sides slope to a 45ļ angle. If the pit is dug deep enough, this should leave the center weight just a few inches above the water container. Next, secure the edges of the plastic sheet with rocks and dirt. Make sure there are no places where moisture can escape. Close the tubing end with a knot, or double it and tie it closed. Takes about an hour to build.

Weather Predictions
Animals are good for short term weather prediction. Rodents may behave in an unusual way prior to a storm. Insect feeding birds fly lower when bad weather is approaching. Curly haired people might find their hair becomes unmanageable when bad weather approaches. Vegetation has a stronger smell before the arrival of rain. Sounds will carry further when wet weather is approaching. Red sky in the morning indicates wet weather is approaching.

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