SPORT HISTORY

Basketball History
Basketball was invented by Dr. James Naismith in 1891. Naismith was a Canadian physician of McGill University and minister on the faculty of a college for YMCA professionals (today, Springfield College) in Springfield, Massachusetts. He modified an old Mayan game and wrote some basic rules. The name, "Basket ball", was suggested by one of Naismith's students. Basketball was originally played with a soccer ball. Originally they used a peach basket with a bottom for the hoop. The first womens basketball game was in 1892, at Smith College. The first official basketball game was played January 20, 1892 in the YMCA gymnasium. The International Basketball Federation was founded in 1932. The Olympic Games included Basketball in 1936. In 1946, the National Basketball Association was founded. In the 1950s, Tony Hinkle introduced the orange ball that is now in use.

Aussie Rules History
The history of Aussie Rules can be traced to 1858 when Tom Wills began to devise Australian rules in Melbourne. Tom sent a letter that was published in Bell's Life in Victoria & Sporting Chronicle on 10 July 1858. The letter suggested for a "foot-ball club" with a "code of laws" to keep cricketers fit during winter. The first game of Aussie Rules was played on 31 July, 1858, at Richmond Paddock, Melbourne. On 7 August 1858, the Melbourne Football Club was founded. The oldest set of rules were written in 1859. The game's first league, the Victorian Football Association (VFA) was formed in 1877. The game was often called "Melbourne Rules" in the beginning. But it soon spread to other States across Australia. In 1879, the first intercolonial match was played. 1977 saw the introduction of State of Origin rules.

Baseball History
The game of Baseball was founded in England. It is mentioned in writings dating back to 1744. From there it spread its way across to the United States. In 1842, a small group meet on a regular basis on a field in Manhattan to play Baseball. They formed the Knickerbocker Base Ball Club some three years later. From there, baseballs first set of formal rules was formed. On June 19, 1846, the first organized baseball match was played beteen the Knickerbockers and the New York Club. On March 10, 1858, the National Association of Base Ball Players (NABBP), was founded. In 1901, the American League was founded. Baseball went on to became the first really popular spectator sport in the United States. In 1903, the first modern World Series was held between Boston of the American League and Pittsburgh of the National League.

Archery History
The origins of archery can be traced back some 5,000 years in history. The bow and arrow probably started as a tool for hunting, but later on as a tool of warfare. Archers soon became an important part of armies for such ancient civilizations as the Persians, Macedonians, Nubians and Greeks. Archery eventually became obsolete in warfare as it was replaced with guns. In 1644, the last battle in which English used archers in war, was in the battle at Tipper Muir. In 1879, the National Archery Association was founded in the United States. Archery was first part of the Olympics in 1900. After 1908, it was dropped, but was reinstated in 1972. In the 1992 Olympic games, a flaming arrow was used to ignite the Olympic torch at the opening ceremony. Archery is the national sport of the Kingdom of Bhutan. The bow seems to have been invented in the late Paleolithic or early Mesolithic periods. The oldest indication for its use in Europe comes from the Stellmoor in the Ahrensburg valley north of Hamburg, Germany and date from the late Paleolithic, about 10,000-9,000 BC. The arrows were made of pine and consisted of a mainshaft and a 15-20 centimetre (6-8 inches) long foreshaft with a flint point. There are no definite earlier bows; previous pointed shafts are known, but may have been launched by atlatls rather than bows. The oldest bows known so far come from the Holmegård swamp in Denmark. Bows eventually replaced the atlatl as the predominant means for launching shafted projectiles, on every continent except Australia (though the atlatl persisted alongside the bow in parts of the Americas, notably Mexico (from which its Nahuatl name comes) and amongst the Inuit). Bows and arrows have been present in Egyptian culture since its predynastic origins. In the Levant, artifacts which may be arrow-shaft straighteners are known from the Natufian culture, (ca. 12,800-10,300 BP (before present)) onwards. The Khiamian and PPN A shouldered Khiam-points may well be arrowheads. Classical civilizations, notably the Assyrians, Persians, Parthians, Indians, Koreans, Chinese, and Japanese fielded large numbers of archers in their armies. The Sanskrit term for archery, dhanurveda, came to refer to martial arts in general. Archery was highly developed in Asia and in the Islamic world. In East Asia the ancient Korean civilizations were well-known for their archery skills. Central Asian and American Plains tribesmen were extremely adept at archery on horseback. The development of firearms rendered bows obsolete in warfare. Despite the high social status, ongoing utility, and widespread pleasure of archery in England, Korea, China, Japan, Turkey, Armenia, America, Egypt, and elsewhere, almost every culture that gained access to even early firearms used them widely, to the relative neglect of archery. Early firearms were vastly inferior in rate-of-fire, and were very susceptible to wet weather. However, they had longer effective range and were tactically superior in the common situation of soldiers shooting at each other from behind obstructions. They also required significantly less training to use properly, in particular penetrating steel armour without any need to develop special musculature. Armies equipped with guns could thus provide superior firepower by sheer weight of numbers, and highly-trained archers became almost obsolete on the battlefield. However, archers are still effective and have seen action even in the 21st century. Traditional archery remains in use for sport, and for hunting in many areas. Archers are deities or heroes in several mythologies, including Greek Artemis and Apollo, Roman Diana and Cupid, Germanic Agilaz, continued in legends like those of William Tell, Palnetoke, or Robin Hood. Armenian Hayk and Babylonian Marduk, Indian Arjuna and Rama, and Persian Arash were all archers. Earlier Greek representations of Heracles normally depict him as an archer. In East Asia, Yi the archer features in several early Chinese myths, and the historical character of Zhou Tong features in many fictional forms. Jumong, the first Taewang of the Goguryeo kingdom of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, is claimed by legend to have been a near-godlike archer.

Ballooning History
The hot-air balloon was invented by Etienne and Joseph Montgolfier, in 1783. That same year the first flight of a hot-air balloon was made on June 5 in Paris. Frenchman Jacques Charles developed a hydrogen balloon. In 1785, Frenchman Jean Pierre Blanchard, and American co-pilot John Jefferies, were the first to fly across the English Channel in a hot air Balloon. In 1905, the International Aeronautical Federation (IAF) was founded for the sport of Ballooning. In 1932, Swiss scientist Auguste Piccard became the first to achieve a manned flight to the Stratosphere reaching a height of 52,498 feet. In 1978, the Double Eagle II, became the first to cross the Atlantic. In 1981, the first Pacific crossing took place. In 1999, Brian Jones and Bertrand Piccard were the first to complete an around the world flight.

Bocce History
It can be said the Bocce is the Italian version of game of lawn bowling. The history of Bocce can be traced to the Italian Alps. In this early form of Bocce, stones were thrown to land as close as possible to a target. Eventually, over time the stones were replaced with Balls and they were rolled instead of thrown. The early Bocce balls were carved from hard olive wood. The game of Bocce became so popular, that Kings Carlos IV and V prohibited the playing of bocce because it interfered with military training. In 1576, the Republic of Venice introduced fines and imprisonment for those caught playing Bocce. In Great Britain, Bocce was very popular with Queen Elizabeth I. In 1947, the first Bocce World Championships took place. The name, "Bocce", is derived from the Vulgate Latin bottia, meaning boss. Umberto Granaglia of Itally is considered the greatest Bocce player of all time.

Bowling History
Sowme say Bowling originated in acient Egypt around 3200 BC, but others say it originated in Germany around 300 AD. The first written reference to bowling was to King Edward III IN England. In 1895, the American Bowling Congress (ABC) was founded. In the same year, the first standardized rules were formed. In 1917, the Women's International Bowling Congress (WIBC) was founded in the United States. In 1952, the first automatic pinsetters were commercially produced. In 1958, the Professional Bowlers Association (PBA) was founded. In 1961, the British Tenpin Bowling Association (BTBA), was founded. In 2005, the ABC, WIBC, and YABA merged and founded the United States Bowling Congress (USBC) in the United States.

History of Chess
The game of Chess originated in India. These days, some countries are making false claims to its origins, but evidence clearly shows that the game of Chess originated in India. India in its past, had all three animals, camel, horse and elephant, in its cavalry. These represent knight, bishop and rook in chess. Only India had this. The Arabic, Greek, Persian, Portuguese and Spanish words for chess are all derived from the Sanskrit game Chaturanga. The present version of chess derives from a version of Chaturanga that was played thoughout India in the 6th century. By the 7th century, Chess had speard across the world to many places including Russia. When Chess eventually made its way into Europe, there became a marked enhancement of the powers of the queen. Early on, the Chess pieces in European chess had limited movement, but over time, they gained more movement. The current rules of Chess, were finalized in the early 19th century, with the exception of the exact conditions for a draw.

Cricket History
The origins of the hisory of cricket can be traced back to the 13th century in England. Written evidence skows us that Prince Edward, palyed a game simlar to modern day cricket in 1300. A court case refers to a sport called, kreckett, played at the Royal Grammar School, Guildford around 1550. During the 17th century cricket spread across England. By the 18th Century, Cricket had become the national sport of England. The Hambledon Club was founded in the 1760s, and the opening of Lord's was in 1787. The 19th Century saw underarm replaced by first roundarm, and then by overarm bowling. The greatest player of Cricket was Australian Don Bradman, statistically the greatest batsman of all time.

Darts History
The History of Darts can be traced to Medieval England where it was founded. Darts started out as a training method for archery. The original dart board was the bottom of an empty wine barrel. The fist darts were in fact shortened arrows. When the bottoms of wine barrels were in short supply, dart throwers started using the cross-section of a tree. From here the modern day dart board evolved. Although Darts started out in the military and working class, it soon spread to the aristocracy. It became a favorite of King Henry VIII. Darts eventually found its way to America from the early settlers. With the spread of the British Empire, so too did darts. It was after WWII, that the rules of darts became standardized.

Discus Throw History
Discus throwing was part of the first Olympics held in 776 B.C. The early discs were made of unwrought bronze and iron and the Discs were given to the winner. In the 8th century BC, Greek poet Homer made references to discus throwing. In the 5th century BC, sculptor Myron produced a statue of a discus thrower (Discobolus). In the 15th century, Indian soldiers used a lethal throwing Disc weapon called a Chacarani. In the 1896 Summer Olympics, the mens discus throw was one of two throwing events. Countries such as Finland, Russia and Germany have proven strong in Discus Throwing.

Fencing History
The history of Fencing can be traced as far back as the ancient Egyptians, Babylonians, Persians, and Romans. However, the development of armor during the Middle Ages made swords obsolete. But the development of firearms made armor obsolete. As such, some use of swords become common again. Fencing spread from Spain and Italy across Europe. Fencing emerged as a pastime for gentlemen and was often a way of settling disputes. Modern Fencing was introduced in the 1840`s to the United States by German Turners. In 1891, the Amateur Fencers League of America (now the U. S. Fencing Association) was founded. In 1902, the Great Britain Amateur Fencing Association was founded. Fencing was part of the original modern Olympics in 1896.

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History of Golf
The first documented mention of Golf was on February 26, 1297 in Holland. The Dutch played a game with a stick and ball involving hitting the ball several hundred meters away at a target. In the 17th century in Netherlands, a game of putting a ball in a hole in the ground using golf clubs was played. The Old Links at Musselburgh, England is the oldest playing golf course in the world. In 1603, Scottish Baron, James VI, brought the game to England. In 1967, Mary, Queen of Scots is said to have played there. In 1744, the first club, called the Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers, was formed. At the same time, the first rules of golf were drawn up. In 1603, William Mayne was appointed to the court of James I of England to make golf clubs. This is the first documented evidence of a Golf club maker.

Gymnastics History
The history of Gymnastics can be traced back some 7,000 years ago to Ancient Egypt. The word "gymnastics", derives from the Greek word "gymnos". This because in Ancient Greece, the male athletes trained and competed in the nude. However, with the rise of the Catholic Church, gymnastics were supressed. The modern gymnastics we know of today can be credited to Johann Friedrich GutsMuths of Germany. Gymnastics were a part of the first modern Olympic Games in 1896. In 1881, the Federation Internationale de Gymnastique (Fig) was founded. In 1928, women gymnastics joined the summer Olympic Games. The sport became world famous when in 172, Russian Olga Korbut amazed television viewers around the world with her performance. She is considered the greatest gymnast ever.

Hockey History
History records show us that a form of hockey was played in Egypt around 4,000 years ago. Hosckey was played in Ethiopia around 1,000 BC. The game of Hockey that we know today, originated in Eton College, England in the 1860s. It was at this stage that the first rules of Hockey were recorded. In 1871, the London Hockey Club was founded. In 1875, the first Hockey Association was formed and more rules added. In 1886, the British Hockey Association was founded. In 1889, the pyramid system of Hockey was used. In 1889, the first womens hockey club was founded in East Mosley, England. In 1908, Hockey was first appeared at the Olympic Games. Hockey was first played at the Commonwealth Games in 1998.

Javelin Throw History
The javelin throw first appeared in the ancient olympics at the 708 BC Games. There were two events that involved the javelin throw, one was for distance and the other for accuracy. Although the use of the Javelin was around much earlier mostly in hunting. The early javelins were made of olive wood. In 1780, the javelin changed to hickory wood. In 1953, Franklin Held invented the hollow javelin. These days the Javelin is made of metal. The javelin throw first appeared in the modern Olympics in 1908. Countries that are strong in the javelin throw include Finland, Cuba and Great Britain.

Lacrosse History
The game of Lacrosse as we now call it was founded by the Native American Indians. It originated in the 15th century. The Six Tribes of the Iroquois called the game, "baggataway". Teams consisted of hundreds or even thousands of players. Due to the fact that the goal was often miles apart, a game may carry on for days. The name of Lacrosse came from the French who were the first westerners to see the game played. The stick used in the game resembled a bishop's crozier,-la crosse, in French. The game eventually made its way to Canada. In 1856, the Montreal Lacrosse Club was founded. In 1867, George Beers wrote the first proper rules for Lacrosse. In 1892, the English Lacrosse Union was founded. Lacrosse was part of the 1904 and 1908 Olympics.

Lawn Bowls History
The history of Lawn Bowls can be traced back to bowling artefacts found in tombs in Egypt dating 5000 BC. In 1670, King Charles II, the Duke of York and the Duke of Buckingham draw up the earliest known Lawn Bowls laws. Then in 1840, a set of rules was established in Scotland to standardise the game. In 1848, Glasgow solicitor William Mitchell draws up standard bowls code. In 1905, the International Bowling Board was founded. Lawn bowls was introduced at the Hamilton Commonwealth Games in 1930. The World Bowls Championship was introduced in 1966. In 1986, Womens lawn bowls debuts at Brisbane Commonwealth Games in Australia.

Rugby League History
Rugby League was founded in 1895 in Huddersfield, England. But from 1895 to 1822, the game was called Northern Rugby Football League. In 1922, the Northern Union adopted the name "Rugby League" officialy. Football games had been played in Britain since the 14th century. Most foorball was played at private schools later on. Each school had its own set of rules. But a split developed between the North and South resulting in the formation of the Northern Rugby Football Union (NRFU). In 1896, Manningham of Bradford wins first Northern Union Championship. In 1904, the first International Match is played at Wigan with the result, England (3) Other Nationalities (9). In 1908, the first Australian Kangaroo team visits Britain. Then in 1910, the first British team tours Australia and New Zealand. In Australia, the original NSWRL premiership clubs were Easts, Souths, Balmain, Wests, Newtown, Newcastle, Norths, Glebe and Cumberland.

Marathon Running
The Marathon is a long-distance road running event of 42.195 km (26 mile 385 yd). The name "Marathon" comes from a mythical story of the legend of Pheidippides, a Greek soldier. It is said that he run from the town of Marathon to Athens to announce that the Persians had been defeated in the Battle of Marathon. The Marathon first appeared at the first modern Olympic Games in 1896, in Athens. It was the idea of Michel Bréal. The first Olympic Marathon was won by Spiridon "Spiros" Louis, a Greek shepherd. He won the Marthon in 2 hours, 58 minutes and 50 seconds. The exact length of a marathon was at first not fixed at a set distance. A fixed distance of 42.195 km was adopted by the International Amateur Athletic Federation (IAAF), in 1921. The womens marathon was introduced at the 1984 Summer Olympics. Abebe Bikila is regarded as the greatest Marathon runner in history.

History of Marbles
The game of Marbles is over 3,000 years old. Marbles get their name from the fact that originally they were made from marble. The use of marbles is mentioned in both ancient Roman literature, and ancient Egypt. Up till the 18th century, Marbles were often made of clay, metal, or glass. Then in the 1970,s, ceramic marbles entered mass production. In the early 20th century, Glass marbles entered mass production. The first machine made marbles were made in 1890, in Germany. These days, Glass marbles are the most popular. The first book on marbles was written in 1815, in England. The World Marbles Championships are held every year at Tinsley Green near Crawley, West Sussex.

Badminton History
The history of Badminton can be traced to ancient Greece about 2000 years ago. From there over tome it spread to India, China and Thailand. In early England children played games called Battledore and Shuttlecock in the streets. In 1854, Punch magazine published a cartoon on the game. British Army officers in Pune, India, In the 1860s, developed a modified version of the game of Battledore and Shuttlecock by adding a net. The new game was known as,"Poona". These soldiers brought the new game back to England where it soon became known as Badminton. In 1877, the Bath Badminton Club became the first badminton club in the world. In 1893, the Badminton Association of England published the first official set of rules for Badminton. In 1899, the All England Open Badminton Championships became the first badminton competition in the world. In 1934, the International Badminton Federation (IBF) was founded.

Netball History
The history of Netball can be traced to Madame Ostenburg's College in England. Here, in 1895, the first Netball game was played. Netball soon spread through the British colonies of Australia, new Zealand and others. In 1900, the Physical Education Association of England published thde rules for the netball. In 1960, the International Federation of Netball Associations (IFNA), was founded. The first Netball World Championship was held in 1963 in Eastbourne, England In 1992, the United States of America Netball Association (USANA) was founded. In 1998, Netball became a Commonwealth Games sport.

Polo History
The history of Polo originated in Iran around B.C. The Iranian poet, Ferdowsi, writes about royal polo tournaments in his 9th century writings. Polo eventually spread to India, China and Asia Minor. In 1869, Polo was finally introduced to England. In 1874, the first set of formal British rules was formed. The first polo match in the United States was played in 1876. Argentina is the dominant country of professional Polo having been the uninterrupted world champion since 1949. Its tenure as an Olympic sport was limited to 1900 - 1939. In 1998, the International Olympic Committee recognised Polo as a sport.

Skydiving History
Leonardo da Vinci is credited with conceiving the idea of a parachute. Da Vinci originally sketched the design for the parachute in 1483. But it was not until 1797, that Frenchman, Andre Jacques Garnerin made the first skydiving jump with a parachute from an aircraft. In 1897, the first limp parachute jump was made. In 1919, the first ever international free-fall parachute jump was made. Skydiving soon took off as a sport. The first World Skydiving Championships were held in Yugoslavia, in 1951. On June 26, 2000, more then 500 years after da Vinci sketched the design for the parachute, British man, Adrian Nicholas, dropped from a hot air balloon 3,000 meters (10,000 feet) above the ground to succesfully test the parachute that Da Vinci had designed.

Snooker History
Snooker is a game that is popular in mostly Britain. The games of Snooker is credited to Colonel Sir Neville Chamberlain who developed the game in the Bristish Army Officers Mess in Jubbulpore, India, in 1875. Originally the game featured fifteen reds, a yellow, green, pink and black (blue and brown were added later). The word "snooker", was army slang for first year cadets. And after Chamberlain refered to a cadet as a Snooker for missing a shot, the term was adopted as the name of this new game. In 1882, the first rules were drafted and recorded. It made its way to England through British billiards champion John Roberts who visites Chamberlain in 1885. The most famous Snooker player in history is, Joe Davis OBE. He helped organise the first snooker world championship in 1927. He went on to win every world Snooker championship until 1946. Modern Snooker tables derive from the Pool games originally played on English Billiards tables. The cloth is made of 100% pure wool that is specially developed for snooker tables.

History of Soccer
The modern game of soccer as we know it originated in England. The history of soccer in England and its eventual spread around the worls is well documented. Durind the mid-19th century there were various forms of soccer being played at the public schools in England. It was decided that a set of rules to govern the game of soccer was needed. In 1848, a meeting by representatives from Eton, Harrow, Rugby, Shrewsbury and Winchester schools was held at Trinity College, Cambridge. A new set of rules was formed. This in effect was the first official meeting of an organization in the history of soccer to advance the game. However, the rules not not adopted by everyone. In 1867, the Sheffield and Hallamshire Football Association was founded. It became the first County Football Association in the history of England Originally, sheffield had its own rules for soccer, till later they joined with the Football Association rules. In 1863, the Football Association was formed. Several meetings were held at the Freemason's Tavern in Great Queen Street, London before a new more detailed set of rules for soccer was formed. It was an important time in the history of soccer. In 1886, the International Football Association Board (IFAB) was founded after a meeting in Manchester of The Football Association, Football Association of Wales, Scottish Football Association and the Irish Football Association. In 1913, FIFA representatives were admitted to the IFAB. These days, the "World Cup" which is organised by FIFA is the peak game of soccer played. The Cup is held every four years and over 190 national teams compete in the qualifying tournaments. Soccer is also played at the summer olympics. In 1863, and the name "association football" was founded. The use of the term "soccer" first appeared in the 1880`s.

Squash History
The history of Squash can be traced to Harrow School, London, England. The game of Squash originated from its parent game, Rackets, which used a harder ball. In the 1960s, the Harrow School constructed the first purpose-built squash court. In 1907, the United States was the first nation to form a dedicated association and codify the game of Squash. These days the game is administered by the World Squash Federation. The mens professional game is managed by the Professional Squash Association. The womens professional game by Women's International Squash Players Association. In 1913, the first squash courts in Australia were built at the Melbourne Club. The British Open is considered the most prestigious Squash event. Heather McKay of Australia is the greatest woman player of all time.

Surfing History
The exact origins of Surfing are unkown, but it is documented that English explorer Captain Cook observed surfing in Hawaii in the 1770s. Surfing was in fact a major part of life and culture in Hawaii. The Chief was the surfer, the ruling class had the best beaches and the best surfing boards. During the 20th century, Surfing became very popular in Hawaii, Australia, and California. Surfing became very popular under a new young generation during the 1960s with a series of films and songs. In 1964, the first world surfing championships were held in Australia. In 1964 also, the International Surfing Federation (ISF) was founded. In 1976, the International Professional Surfing was founded to govern the pro tour. The International Surfing Association (ISA) was founded to govern amateur surfing.

Table Tennis History
Founded in England around the 1880s. The game was usually played after dinner by the upper class. The table was set up using a line of books for the net. A cigar box lid served as the paddle. Soon Table Tennis became so popular that manufacturers started to sell the equipment commercially. The early game was sometimes called, "Gossima", before Ping Pong became popular. In 1901, English manufacturer J. Jaques & Son Ltd trademarked the name, ping pong. In 1901, celluloid balls was used in Table Tennis. In 1902, an unofficial world championship was held. In 1903, E.C. Goode invented a new style of racket by fixing a sheet of rubber to the wooden blade. The Table Tennis Association was founded in England, in 1921. In 1926, the International Table Tennis Federation was founded. In 1988, Table tennis was introduced at the Olympics.

History of Tennis
There is no exact origin of tennis. Ball games have been played since 1500 b.c. But the closet thing to the modern game of tennis developed around the 12th century in France. This version of the game was called 'La Soule'. Players would hit the ball to each other using either their hands. By the 15th century, a wooden frame racquet strung with sheep gut was used. By the 17th century, tennis had spread to England and was popular with the nobility. In 1625, England's Hampton Court was built. In 1876, the first court was built in the United States. In 1882, Australia had its first tennis court. In 1877, the All England Club held the first Wimbledon tournament. Its committee developed the set of rules that are basically the game of Tennis we know today.

Triathlon History
The history of the Triathalon can be traced to France during the 1920s. A 1920 French newspaper reported on a Triathalon type race involving a 3 km run, 12 km bike and crossing of the channel Marne. Newspaper reports of other Triathalon type events continued in France over the years. The first modern day Triathalon was in 1974, in Mission Bay, United States. In 1989, the International Triathlon Union (ITU) was founded in Avignon, France. In the same year, the first official world Triathalon championships were held. The Triathlon debuted at the 2000 summer Olympic Games in Sydney, Australia. The Triathalon Olympic Distance is (1500 m swim - 40 km bike - 10 km run).

Rugby Union History
In 1845, the first set of written rules was published in England. But football games were being played at Rugby school for almost two hundred years. Previous to 1863, football teams would agree on a set of rules before a match. But in 1863, the Football Association (FA) was formed. In 1858, the oldest documented rugby club in England, the Blackheath Rugby Club was founded. In 1871, the Rugby Football Union (RFU) formed, which lead to the standardisation of the games rules. In 1886, the International Rugby Board (IRB) become the world governing and law-making body. In 1895, there was a split in the game with 22 clubs leaving to form what would eventually become Rugby League. The game of rugby was introduced to New Zealand by Charles John Monro, who had studied in England. In 1995, Rugby Union went from amateurism to professionalism.

Volleyball History
Created by William G. Morgan in 1895, in Holyoke, Massachusetts. Morgan was a YMCA physical education director. Volleyball was originally called Mintonette. Volleyball was originally designed to be an indoor sport for older members of the YMCA. The first exhibition match was played at the Springfield YMCA in 1896. In 1947, the Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB), was founded. In 1949, the first World Championships were held. In 1964, Volleyball was added to the program of the Olympic Games.

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