1870 The Prussian army crushes the French at Sedan.

1876 The Ottomans defeat the Serbs at Aleksinac.

1916 Bulgaria declares war on Rumania as the First World War expands.

1923 An earthquake levels the Japanese cities of Tokyo and Yokohama, killing 300,000.

1939 Germany invades Poland, beginning World War II in Europe.


1666 The Great Fire of London devastates the city.

1798 The Maltese people revolt against the French occupation.

1870 Napoleon III capitulates to the Prussians at Sedan, France.

1945 Japan signs the document of surrender aboard the USS Missouri, ending World War II.

1945 Vietnam declares its independence.


1189 Richard Lionheart is crowned king of England.

1939 After Germany ignores Great Britain's ultimatum to stop the invasion of Poland, Great Britain declares war on Germany, marking the beginning of World War II.

1969 Ho Chi Minh, the hero of Vietnam who lead his country to freedom and defeated the US, dies.


1787 Louis XVI of France recalls parliament.

1862 Robert E. Lee's Confederate army invades Maryland.

1870 A republic is proclaimed in Paris.

1893 Beatrix Potter sends a note to her governess son with the first drawing of Peter Rabbit, Cottontail and others. The Tale of Petter Rabbit is published eight years later.

1944 British troops liberate Antwerp, Belgium.


1666 The Great Fire of London is extinguished after two days.

1816 Louis XVIII of France dissolves the chamber of deputies.

1905 The Russian Japanese War ends.

1960 Leopold Sedar Sengingor is elected president of Senegal, Africa.

1975 President Gerald Ford of the US evades an assassination attempt.


1522 One of the five ships that set out in Ferdinand Magellan's trip around the world makes it back to Spain.

1688 Imperial troops defeat the Turks and take Belgrade, Serbia.

1901 US President William McKinley is shot.

1965 Indian troops invade Lahore; Pakistan paratroopers raid Punjab.


1701 England, Austria, and the Netherlands form an Alliance against France.

1888 An incubator is used for the first time on a premature infant.

1912 French aviator Roland Garros sets an altitude record of 13,200 feet.

1942 The Red Army pushes back the German line northwest of Stalingrad.


1565 Spanish explorers found St. Augustine, Florida, the first permanent European settlement in what is now the United States.

1760 The French surrender the city of Montreal to the British.

1903 Between 30,000 and 50,000 Bulgarian men, women and children are massacred in Monastir by Turkish troops seeking to check a threatened Macedonian uprising.

1925 Germany is admitted into the League of Nations.

1945 Korea is partitioned by the Soviet Union and the United States.

1960 Penguin Books in Britain is charged with obscenity for trying to publish the D.H. Lawrence novel Lady Chatterly's Lover.


1087 William the Conquerer, Duke of Normandy and King of England, dies in Rouen. while conducting a war which began when the French king made fun of him for being fat.

1513 King James IV of Scotland is defeated and killed at Flodden.

1543 Mary, Queen of Scots is is crowned Queen of England.

1886 The Berne International Copyright Convention takes place.

1915 A German zeppelin bombs London for the first time.

1942 A Japanese float plane makes its first bombing run on a U.S.


1419 John the Fearless is murdered at Montereau, France, by supporters of the dauphine.

1912 J. Vedrines becomes the first pilot to break the 100 m.p.h. barrier.


1297 Scots under William Wallace defeat the English at Stirling Bridge.

1695 Imperial troops under Eugene of Savoy defeat the Turks at the Battle of Zenta.

1709 John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, wins the bloodiest battle of the 18th century against the French at Malplaquet.

1802 Piedmont, Italy, is annexed by France.

1974 Haile Selassie I is deposed from the Ethiopian throne.


1213 Simon de Montfort defeats Raymond of Toulouse and Peter II of Aragon at Muret, France.

1683 A combined Austrian and Polish army defeats the Turks at Kahlenberg.

1722 The Treaty of St. Petersburg puts an end to the Russo-Persian War.

1919 Adolf Hitler joins German Worker's Party.

1969 President Richard Nixon orders a resumption in bombing North Vietnam killing thousands.


1515 King Francis of France defeats the Swiss army under Cardinal Matthias Schiner at Marignano.

1759 British troops defeat the French on the plains of Abraham, in Quebec.

1945 Iran demands the withdrawal of Allied forces.

1976 Still embarrased of its totally humiliating defeat, the United States announces it will veto Vietnams UN bid.


1321 Dante Alighieri dies of malaria just hours after finishing writing Paradiso.

1544 Henry VIII's forces take Boulogne, France.

1911 Russian Premier Piotr Stolypin is mortally wounded in an assassination attempt.

1960 Iraq, Iran, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia form OPEC.


1620 The Pilgrims sail from England on the Mayflower.

1668 King John Casimer V of Poland abdicates the throne.

1810 A revolution for independence breaks out in Mexico.

1908 General Motors files papers of incorporation.

1934 Anti-Nazi Lutherans stage protest in Munich.

1945 Japan surrenders Hong Kong to Britain.


1787 The Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia approves the constitution for the United States of America.

1903 Turks destroy the town of Kastoria in Bulgaria, killing 10,000 civilians.

1942 British Prime Minister Winston Churchill meets with Soviet Premier Josef Stalin in Moscow.

1957 The Thai army seizes power in Bangkok.


1759 Quebec surrenders to the British.

1793 George Washington lays the foundation stone for the U.S. Capitol.

1934 The League of Nations admits the Soviet Union.

1980 Cosmonaut Arnoldo Tamayo, a Cuban, becomes the first black to be sent on a mission in space.


1356 In a landmark battle of the Hundred Years' War, English Prince Edward defeats the French at Poitiers.

1544 Francis, the king of France, and Charles V of Austria sign a peace treaty in Crespy, France.

1783 The first hot-air balloon is sent aloft in Versailles, France.

1955 Argentina's President Juan Peron is overthrown.

1957 First underground nuclear test is takes place in Nevada, USA.


1519 Ferdinand Magellan embarks from Spain on a voyage to circumnavigate the world.

1561 Queen Elizabeth of England signs a treaty at Hamptan Court with French Huguenot leader Louis de Bourbon, the Prince of Conde.

1604 After a two-year siege, the Spanish retake Ostend, the Netherlands, from the Dutch.

1952 Scientists confirm that DNA holds hereditary data.

1965 Seven U.S. planes are downed in one day over Vietnam.


1327 Edward II of England is murdered by order of his wife.

1589 The Duke of Mayenne of France is defeated by Henry IV at the Battle of Arques.

1915 Stonehenge is sold by auction for 6,600 pounds sterling to Mr. Chubb, who buys it as a present for his wife. He presents it to the British nation three years later.

1929 Fighting between China and the Soviet Union breaks out along the Manchurian border.

1978 Two Soviet cosmonauts set a space endurance record after 96 days in space.


1789 Russian forces under Aleksandr Suvorov drive the Turkish army under Yusuf Pasha from the Rymnik River, upsetting the Turkish invasion of Russia.

1918 General Allenby leads the British army against the Turks, taking Haifa and Nazareth, Palestine.

1959 The first telephone cable linking Europe and the United States is inaugurated.


1553 The Sadians establish themselves as rulers of Morocco.

1577 William of Orange makes triumphant entry into Brussels, Belgium.

1739 The Austrians sign the Treaty of Belgrade after having lost the city to the Turks.

1788 Louis XVI of France declares the Parliament restored.

1803 British Major General Sir Arthur Wellesley defeats the Marathas at Assaye, India.

1954 East German police arrest 400 citizens as U.S. spies.

1973 Juan Peron is re-elected president of Argentina after being overthrown in 1955.


1788 After having been dissolved, the French Parliament of Paris reassembles in triumph.

1915 Bulgaria mobilizes troops on the Serbian border.

1956 The first transatlantic telephone cable system begins operation.

1970 The Soviet Luna 16 lands, completing the first unmanned round trip to the moon.

1993 Sihanouk is reinstalled as king of Cambodia.


1598 In Sweden, King Sigismund is defeated at Stangebro by his Uncle Charles.

1846 American General Zachary Taylor's forces capture Monterey, Mexico.

1918 Brazil declares war on Austria.

1959 President Eisenhower and Soviet Premier Khrushchev begin Camp David talks.


1786 France and Britain sign a trade agreement in London.

1820 The legendary frontiersman Daniel Boone dies quietly at the Defiance, Mo.

1829 Scotland Yard, the official British criminal investigation organization, is formed.

1969 The Beatles last album, Abbey Road, is released.

1977 Israel announces a cease fire on Lebanese border.


1669 The island of Crete in the Mediterranean Sea falls to the Ottoman Turks after a 21-year siege.

1916 Constance of Greece declares war on Bulgaria.

1939 Germany occupies Warsaw as Poland falls to Germany and the Soviet Union.

1942 Australian forces defeat the Japanese on New Guinea in the South Pacific.


1197 Emperor Henry VI dies in Messina, Sicily.

1399 Richard II of England is deposed.

1939 Germany and the Soviet Union reach an agreement on the division of Poland.

1943 Adolf Hitler's book Mein Kampf is published in the United States.


1399 Richard II is deposed.

1568 Eric XIV, king of Sweden, is deposed.

1791 Mozart's opera The Magic Flute is performed for the first time in Vienna

1911 Italy declares war on Turkey over control of Tripoli.

1918 Bulgaria pulls out of World War I.

1954 NATO nations agree to arm and admit West Germany.

1955 Actor and teen idol James Dean is killed in a car crash.

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