1273 Rudolf of Hapsburg is elected emperor in Germany.

1791 In Paris, the National Legislative Assembly holds its first meeting.

1942 The German Army grinds to a complete halt within the city of Stalingrad.

1943 British troops in Italy enter Naples and occupy Foggia airfield.

1946 Twelve Nazi war criminals are sentenced to be hanged at Nuremberg trials.


1263 At Largs, King Alexander III of Scotland repels an amphibious invasion by King Haakon IV of Norway.

1909 Orville Wright sets an altitude record, flying at 1,600 feet.

1950 The comic strip Peanuts, by Charles M. Schultz, makes its first appearance in newspapers.


1739 Russia signs a treaty with Turkey.

1906 The first conference on wireless telegraphy in Berlin adopts SOS as warning signal.

1929 The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes officially changes its name to Yugoslavia.

1931 The comic strip Dick Tracy first appears in the New York News.

1990 After 40 years of division, East and West Germany are reunited as one nation.


1795 General Napoleon Bonaparte leads the rout of counterrevolutionaries in the streets of Paris.

1914 The first German Zeppelin raids London.

1957 Sputnik 1, the first man-made satellite, is launched, beginning the "space race."


1762 The British fleet bombards and captures Spanish held Manila in the Philippines.

1821 Greek rebels capture Tripolitza.

1880 The first ball-point pen is patented on this day by Alonzo T. Cross.


1571 The Ottoman navy is defeated at Lepanto, Greece.

1849 Edgar Allan Poe, aged 40, dies a tragic death in Baltimore.

1949 Iva Toguri D'Aquino, better known as Tokyo Rose, is sentenced to 10 years in prison for treason.


876 Charles the Bald is defeated at the Battle of Andernach.

1840 King William I of Holland abdicates.

1906 Karl Ludwig Nessler first demonstrates a machine in London that puts permenant waves in hair.


28 BC The Temple of Apollo is dedicated on the Palatine Hill in Rome.

1470 Henry VI of England restored to the throne.

1934 In Marseilles, a Macedonian revolutionary associated with Croat terrorists in Hungary assassinates King Alexander of Yugoslavia and French Foreign Minister Louis Barthou.


1727 George II of England crowned.

1899 South African Boers declare war on Great Britain.

1915 Edith Cavell, an English nurse in Belgium, is executed by Germans for aiding the escape of Allied prisoners.

1972 A French mission in Vietnam is destroyed by a U.S. bombing raid.


1492 Christopher Columbus lands in the Bahamas.

1899 The Anglo-Boer War begins.

1933 Alcatraz Island is made a federal maximum security prison.


54 Nero becomes the new emperor of Rome.

1307 Members of the Knights of Templar are arrested throughout France, falsely imprisoned and tortured by the order of King Philip the Fair of France.

1399 Henry IV of England is crowned.

1904 Sigmund Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams is published.

1943 Italy declares war on Germany.


1066 William of Normandy defeats King Harold in the Battle of Hastings.

1773 Britain's East India Company tea ships' cargo is burned at Annapolis, Md.

1806 Napoleon Bonaparte defeats the Prussian army at Jena, Germany.

1912 Former U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt is shot and wounded in assassination attempt.

1917 Mata Hari, a Paris dancer, is executed by the French after being convicted of passing military secrets to the Germans.

1964 Rev. Martin Luther King is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.


1783 Francois Pilatre de Rozier makes the first manned flight in a hot air balloon.

1878 Thomas A. Edison founds the Edison Electric Light Co.

1945 Vichy French Premier Pierre Laval is executed by a firing squad for his wartime collaboration with the Germans.

1964 Leonid Brezhnev becomes leader of the Soviet Union.


1793 Queen Marie Antoinette is beheaded by guillotine.

1908 The first airplane flight in England is made at Farnsborough.

1946 Ten Nazi war criminals are hanged in Nuremberg, Germany.


1346 English forces defeat the Scots under David II during the Battle of Neville's Cross, Scotland.

1849 Composer and pianist Frederic Chopin dies in Paris at the age of 39.

1913 Zeppelin LII explodes over London, killing 28.


1216 King John of England dies and is succeeded by his nine-year-old son Henry.

1739 England declares war on Spain over borderlines in Florida.

1812 Napoleon Bonaparte begins his retreat from Moscow.

1949 The People's Republic of China is formally proclaimed.


480 BC Greeks defeat the Persians in a naval battle at Salamis.

1714 George I of England crowned.

1805 Austrian general Karl Mac surrenders to Napoleon's army at the battle of Ulm.

1870 The Summer Palace in Beijing, China, is burnt to the ground by a Franco-British expeditionary force.

1904 Bolivia and Chile sign a treaty ending the War of the Pacific.

1945 Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Lebanon form the Arab League.

1968 Jacqueline Kennedy marries Aristotle Onassis.


1790 The Tricolor is chosen as the official flag of France.

1879 Thomas Edison first demonstrates his electric lamp.

1961 Bob Dylan records his first album in a single day at a cost of $400.


1797 The first successful parachute descent is made by Andre-Jacqes Garnerin, who jumps from a balloon at some 2,200 feet over Paris.

1859 Spain declares war on the Moors in Morocco.

1938 Chester Carlson invents the photocopier.

1964 Jean Paul Satre declines the Nobel Prize for Literature.

1966 The Soviet Union launches Luna 12 for orbit around the moon


1641 Catholics in Ireland massacre Protestant 100,000 men, women and children.

1707 The first Parliament of Great Britain meets.

1952 The Nobel Prize for Medicine is awarded to Ukranian-born microbiologist Selmart A. Waksman for his discovery of an effective treatment of tuberculosis.


1415 Henry V defeats the French at Agincourt, France.

1760 George III of England crowned.

1944 The Japanese are defeated in the Battle of Leyte Gulf, the world's largest sea engagement.

1960 Martin Luther King, Jr., is sentenced to four months in prison for a sit-in.

1971 The U.N. seats the People's Republic of China and expels Taiwan.

1983 Grenada is invaded by the USA.


1905 Norway signs a treaty of separation with Sweden.

1942 U.S. Navy aircraft carrier Hornet is sunk in the Battle of Santa Cruz Island, in the South Pacific.

1970 Gary Trudeau's comic strip Doonesbury first appears.


1553 Michael Servetus, who discovered the pulmonary circulation of the blood, is burned for heresy by the Catholic Church.

1806 Emperor Napoleon enters Berlin.

1870 The French fortress of Metz surrenders to the Prussian Army.

1927 Fox Movie-tone news, the first sound news film, is released.

1962 Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev offers to remove Soviet missile bases in Cuba if the U.S. removes its missile bases in Turkey.


312 Constantine the Great defeats Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius at the Mulvian Bridge.

1216 Henry III of England is crowned.

1636 Harvard College, the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, is founded in Cambridge, Mass.

1914 George Eastman announces the invention of the color photographic process.

1940 Italy invades Greece, launching six divisions on four fronts from occupied Albania.


1270 The Seventh Crusade ends by the Treaty of Barbary.

1485 Henry VII of England crowned.

1697 The Treaty of Ryswick ends the war between France and the Grand Alliance.

1922 Mussolini sends his black shirts into Rome.

1925 Scotsman John L. Baird performs first TV broadcast of moving objects.

1938 H.G. Wells' War of the Worlds is broadcast over the radio by Orson Welles' Mercury Theatre.


1517 Martin Luther nails his 95 Theses to the door of the church at Wittenberg in Germany.

1952 The United States explodes the first hydrogen bomb at Eniwetok Atoll in the Pacific.

1984 Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi is assassinated in New Delhi by two Sikh members of her bodyguard.

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