Nutrition Information

Nutrition Information is a science that studies the relationship between diet and health. Dietitians are health professionals who specialize in this area of study, and are trained to provide safe, evidence-based dietary advice and interventions.

Deficiencies, excesses and imbalances in diet can produce negative impacts on health, which may lead to diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, scurvy, obesity or osteoporosis, as well as psychological and behavioral problems. Moreover, excessive ingestion of elements that have no apparent role in health, (e.g. lead, mercury, PCBs, dioxins), may incur toxic and potentially lethal effects, depending on the dose.

Many common diseases and their symptoms can often be prevented or alleviated with better nutrition. The science of nutrition attempts to understand how and why specific dietary aspects influence health.

In popular folklore, spinach is a rich source of iron. In reality, a 60 gram serving of boiled spinach contains around 1.9 mg of iron (slightly more when eaten raw). A good many green vegetables contain less than 1 mg of iron for an equivalent serving. Hence spinach does contain a relatively high level of iron for a vegetable, but its consumption does not have special health connotations as folklore might suggest. Ultimately, the bioavailability of iron is dependent on its absorption. This is influenced by a number of factors. Iron enters the body in two forms: nonheme iron and heme iron. This larger portion of dietary iron (nonheme) is absorbed slowly in its many food sources, including spinach. This absorption may vary widely depending on the presence of binders such as fiber or enhancers, such as vitamin C. Therefore, the body's absorption of non-heme iron can be improved by consuming foods that are rich in vitamin C. However, spinach contains high levels of oxalate. Oxalates bind to iron to form ferrous oxalate and remove iron from the body. Therefore, a diet high in oxalate (or phosphate or phytate) leads to a decrease in iron absorption. Spinach also has a high calcium content. However, the oxalate content in spinach binds with calcium decreasing its absorption. By way of comparison, the body can absorb about half of the calcium present in broccoli, yet only around 5% of the calcium in spinach. Spinach still has a large nutritional value, especially when fresh, steamed, or quickly boiled. It is a rich source of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K, magnesium, and several vital antioxidants. Recently, opioid peptides called rubiscolins have also been found in spinach. It is a source of folic acid, and this vitamin was first purified from spinach. To benefit from the folate in spinach, it is better to steam it than to boil it. Boiling spinach for four minutes can halve the level of folate.

The Strawberry is a genus of plants in the family Rosaceae, and the fruit of these plants. There are more than 20 named species and many hybrids and cultivars. The most common strawberries grown commercially are cultivars of the Garden strawberry, Fragaria ananassa. Strawberries are a valuable source of vitamin C and Folic Acid.

Sultanas have a delicate and unique flavor and are noted for their high levels of Vitamins B1 and 2. Sultanas also contain minerals.

The Tamarind is high in Calcium, Vitamin A and Vitamin C.

The tomato is also an excellent source of vitamin C (one medium tomato provides 40% of the RDA) and a good source of vitamin A (20% of the RDA).

The zucchini vegetable is low in calories (approximately 15 food calories per 100 g fresh zucchini) and contains useful amounts of folate, potassium and vitamin A.

Raspberries contain significant amounts of polyphenol antioxidants, chemicals linked to promoting endothelial and cardiovascular health.

Pumpkin seeds are a good source of iron, zinc, essential fatty acids, potassium, and magnesium. Pumpkin seeds may also promote prostate health since components in pumpkin seed oil appears to interrupt the triggering of prostate cell multiplication by testosterone and DHT. Removing the white hull of the pumpkin seed reveals an edible, green-colored seed inside that is commonly referred to as a pepita in North and South America. The pumpkin is loaded with an important antioxidant, beta-carotene. Beta-carotene is one of the plant carotenoids converted to vitamin A in the body. In the conversion to vitamin A, beta carotene performs many important functions in overall health.

The Pomegranate will provide 16% of an adult's daily vitamin C requirement per 100 ml serving, pomegranate juice is also a good source of the B vitamin, pantothenic acid, potassium and antioxidant polyphenols.

Potatoes eaten with the skin provide nearly half of the Daily Value for vitamin C and are one of the best sources of potassium and fiber.

Plums are loaded with Vitamin C, Vitamin A and dietry fibre.

Pineapple is a good source of manganese, as well as containing significant amounts of Vitamin C and Vitamin B1.

The Pawpaw is high in vitamin C, magnesium, iron, copper, manganese and a good source of potassium and several essential amino acids. Pawpaw also contains riboflavin, niacin, calcium, phosphorus, and zinc.

Papayas are high in vitamin C, potassium and vitamin E.

The Orange is rich in Potassium, Calcium and Vitamin C.

Evidence suggests that onions may be effective against the common cold, heart disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, and other diseases. They contain anti-inflammatory, anticholesterol and antioxidant components such as quercetin.

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Omega-3 fatty acids are a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Note that spoken-word and visual media have by and large adopted the technically-incorrect pronunciation of "Omega 3", as opposed to the term used by chemists, "Omega minus 3.") Important omega-3 fatty acids in nutrition are: a-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The human body cannot synthesize omega-3 fatty acids de novo, but can synthesize all the other necessary omega-3 fatty acids from the simpler omega-3 fatty acid a-linolenic acid. Therefore, a-linolenic acid is an essential nutrient which must be obtained from food, and the other omega-3 fatty acids which can be either synthesized from it within the body or obtained from food are sometimes also referred to as essential nutrients. Omega-3 fatty acids which are important in human nutrition are: a-linolenic acid (18:3, ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5, EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6, DHA). These three polyunsaturates have either 3, 5 or 6 double bonds in a carbon chain of 18, 20 or 22 carbon atoms, respectively. All double bonds are in the cis-configuration, i.e. the two hydrogen atoms are on the same side of the double bond. The most widely available source of EPA and DHA is cold water oily fish such as wild salmon, herring, mackerel, anchovies and sardines. The oil from these fish have a profile of around seven times as much omega-3 as omega-6. Farmed salmon, being grain fed, have a higher proportion of omega-6 than wild salmon. Other oily fish such as tuna also contain omega-3 in somewhat lesser amounts. Some supplement manufacturers remove heavy metals and other contaminants from the oil through various means, such as molecular distillation, which increases purity, potency and safety. Although fish is a dietary source of omega-3 fatty acids, fish do not synthesize them; they obtain them from the algae in their diet. For this reason, there is often a significant difference in EPA and DHA concentrations in farmed vs wild caught fish.

The Olive is rich in Calcium, Iron, Magnesium, Potassium, Zinc, Manganese, Vitamin C and more.

Nutraceutical is a portmanteau of "nutrition" and "pharmaceutical" and refers to foods claimed to have a medicinal effect on human health. Such foods are also called functional foods. It can also refer to individual chemicals present in common foods. Many such nutraceuticals are phytonutrients. Examples of claims made for nutraceuticals are red wine (resveratrol) as an antioxidant and an anticholesteremic, broccoli (sulforaphane) as a cancer preventative, and soy and clover (isoflavonoids) to improve arterial health in women. Several nutraceuticals are known. Some examples are Flavanoids, Anti Oxidants such as gamma linolenic acid, beta carateins, anthocyanins, etc. With the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), USA, several other compounds were added to the list of supplements originally mentioned in FDA notification. Thus many botanical and herbal extracts such as Ginseng, garlic oil,etc found place as nutraceuticals. Nutraceuticals are often used in nutrient premixes or nutrient systems in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

A one-cup serving of watermelon will provide around 48 calories. Watermelon is an excellent source of vitamin C and vitamin A, with one serving containing 14.59 mg of vitamin C and 556.32 IU of vitamin A. Watermelon also provides significant amounts of vitamin B6 and vitamin B1, as well as the minerals potassium and magnesium. Pink watermelon is also a source of the potent carotenoid antioxidant, lycopene.

The mango contains about 15% sugar, up to 1% protein, and significant amounts of vitamins A, B and C.

The Mandarin is a good source of vitamin C, folate and beta-carotene. They also contain some potassium, magnesium and vitamins B1, B2 & B3.

Lemons and other citrus fruits contain amounts of different chemicals and are thought to have some health benefits. They contain a terpene called D-limonene which gives their characteristic lemon smell and taste. Lemons contain significant amounts of citric acid; this is why they have a low pH and a sour taste. They also contain Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) which is essential to human health. 100 milliliters of lemon juice contains approximately 50 milligrams of Vitamin C (55% of the recommended daily value) and 5 grams of citric acid. Lemons can be processed to extract oils and essences.

Kiwifruit is a rich source of vitamin C. Its potassium content by weight is slightly less than that of a banana. It also contains vitamins A and E. The skin is a good source of flavonoid antioxidants.

Grapefruit is an excellent source of many nutrients and phytochemicals, for a healthy diet. Grapefruit is a good source of vitamin C, pectin fiber, and the pink and red hues contain the beneficial antioxidant lycopene. Studies have shown grapefruit helps lower cholesterol and there is evidence that the seeds have low levels of antioxidant properties.

The Eggplant is high in Dietary Fiber, Folate, Potassium, Manganese, Vitamin C, Vitamin K, Thiamin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Pantothenic Acid and Magnesium.

Cherries have been shown to have several health benefits. Cherries contain anthocyanins, which is the red pigment in berries. Cherry anthocyanins have been shown to reduce pain and inflammation. Anthocyanins are also potent antioxidants.

Cauliflower is low in fat, high in dietary fiber, folate, water and vitamin C, possessing a very high nutritional density. As a member of the brassica family, cauliflower shares with broccoli and cabbage several phytochemicals which are beneficial to human health, including sulforaphane, an anti-cancer compound released when cauliflower is chopped or chewed.

In its raw state, cabbage contains iron, calcium, potassium, vitamin C content, vitamins B1, B2, and B3.

Brussels sprouts contain good amounts of vitamin A, vitamin C, folic acid and dietary fibre. Moreover, they are believed to protect against colon cancer, due to their containing sinigrin.

Bilberry is often said to improve night vision, and the story is told of RAF pilots in World War II using bilberry for that purpose. The overall therapeutic use of bilberry is still clinically unproven. It may have other beneficial effects on capillaries due to the strong antioxidant properties of its anthocyanidin flavonoids. The leaves have historically been used to treat gastrointestinal ailments, applied topically or made into infusions. The effects claimed have not been reproduced in the laboratory, however.

Bananas are a valuable source of Vitamin A, Vitamin B6, Vitamin C, and potassium.

Apples contain Vitamin C as well as a host of other antioxidant compounds, which may reduce the risk of cancer by preventing DNA damage. The fibre content, while less than in most other fruits, helps regulate bowel movements and may thus reduce the risk of colon cancer. They may also help with heart disease, weight loss and controlling cholesterol, as they do not have any cholesterol, have fibre (which reduces cholesterol by preventing reabsorption), and are bulky for their caloric content like most fruits and vegetables.

Apricots include Vitamin A, Vitamin C and Iron.

Salmon Oil provides all eight members of the Omega 3 family. Salmon Oil is gained from the Salmon fish. Salmon is the common name for several species of Fish of the family Salmonidae. Several other fish in the family are called trout. Salmon live in both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, as well as the Great Lakes and other land locked lakes. Typically, salmon are anadromous: they are born in fresh water, migrate to the ocean, then return to fresh water to reproduce. Folklore has it that the fish return to the exact spot where they were born to spawn. In Alaska, the crossing-over to other streams allows salmon to populate new streams, such as those that emerge as a glacier retreats. The precise method salmon use to navigate has not been entirely established, though their keen sense of smell is involved. In all species of Pacific salmon, the mature individuals die within a few days or weeks of spawning, a trait known as semelparity. However, even in those species of salmon that may survive to spawn more than once (iteroparity), post-spawning mortality is quite high (perhaps as high as 40 to 50%.) The salmon has long been at the heart of the culture and livelihood of coastal dwellers. Most peoples of the Northern Pacific shore had a ceremony to honor the first return of the year. For many centuries, people caught salmon as they swam upriver to spawn. A famous spearfishing site on the Columbia River at Celilo Falls was inundated after great dams were built on the river. The Ainu, of northern Japan, taught dogs how to catch salmon as they returned to their breeding grounds en masse. Now, salmon are caught in bays and near shore.
Salmon population levels are of concern in the Atlantic and in some parts of the Pacific but in Alaska stocks are still abundant. Fish farming is outlawed and the State of Alaska's fisheries management system is viewed as the global leader in the management of wild, sustainable fish stocks. The most important Alaska Salmon wild sustainable fisheries are located near the Kenai River, Copper River, and in Bristol Bay. In Canada, the Skeena River wild salmon returning which support commercial fisheries, aboriginal food fisheries, sports fisheries and the area's diverse wildlife on the coast and around communities hundreds of miles inland in the watershed. The Columbia River salmon population is now less than 3% of what it was when Lewis and Clark arrived at the river. Both Atlantic and Pacific Salmon are important to recreational fishing around the world.
Life cycle of Salmon:
Eggs in different stages of development. In some only a few cells grow on top of the yolk, in the lower right the blood vessels surround the yolk and in the upper left the black eyes are visible, even the little lens Salmon fry hatching - the larva has grown around the remains of the yolk - visible are the arteries spinning around the yolk and little oildrops, also the gut, the spine, the main caudal blood vessel, the bladder and the arcs of the gillsIn order to lay her roe, the female salmon uses her tail fin to excavate a shallow depression, called a redd. The redd may sometimes contain 5,000 eggs covering 30 square feet (Template:Convert/sqm). The eggs usually range from orange to red in color. One or more males will approach the female in her redd, depositing his sperm, or milt, over the roe. The female then covers the eggs by disturbing the gravel at the upstream edge of the depression before moving on to make another redd. The female will make as many as 7 redds before her supply of eggs is exhausted. The salmon then die within a few days of spawning. The eggs will hatch into alevin or sac fry. The fry quickly develop into parr with camouflaging vertical stripes. The parr stay for one to three years in their natal stream before becoming smolts which are distinguished by their bright silvery colour with scales that are easily rubbed off. It is estimated that only 10% of all salmon eggs survive long enough to reach this stage. The smolt body chemistry changes, allowing them to live in salt water. Smolts spend a portion of their out-migration time in brackish water, where their body chemistry becomes accustomed to osmoregulation in the ocean. The salmon spend one to five years (depending on the species) in the open ocean where they will become sexually mature. The adult salmon returns primarily to its natal stream to spawn. When fish return for the first time they are called whitling in the UK and grilse or peel in Ireland. Prior to spawning, depending on the species, the salmon undergoes changes. They may grow a hump, develop canine teeth, develop a kype (a pronounced curvature of the jaws in male salmon). All will change from the silvery blue of a fresh run fish from the sea to a darker color. Condition tends to deteriorate the longer the fish remain in freshwater, and they then deteriorate further after they spawn becoming known as kelts. Salmon can make amazing journeys, sometimes moving hundreds of miles upstream against strong currents and rapids to reproduce. Chinook and sockeye salmon from central Idaho, for example, travel over 900 miles (1,400 km) and climb nearly 7,000 feet (2,100 m) from the Pacific ocean as they return to spawn. Each year, the fish experiences a period of rapid growth, often in summer, and one of slower growth, normally in winter. This results in rings (annuli) analogous to the growth rings visible in a tree trunk. Freshwater growth shows as densely crowded rings, sea growth as widely spaced rings; spawning is marked by significant erosion as body mass is converted into eggs and milt. Freshwater streams and estuaries provide important habitat for many salmon species. They feed on terrestrial and aquatic insects, amphipods, and other crustaceans while young, and primarily on other fish when older. Eggs are laid in deeper water with larger gravel, and need cool water and good water flow (to supply oxygen) to the developing embryos. Mortality of salmon in the early life stages is usually high due to natural predation and human induced changes in habitat, such as siltation, high water temperatures, low oxygen conditions, loss of stream cover, and reductions in river flow. Estuaries and their associated wetlands provide vital nursery areas for the salmon prior to their departure to the open ocean. Wetlands not only help buffer the estuary from silt and pollutants, but also provide important feeding and hiding areas. The salmon is eaten almost everywhere in the world.
Salmon as food:
Salmon is a popular food. Consuming salmon is considered to be reasonably healthy due to the fish's high protein, high Omega-3 fatty acids, and high vitamin D content. Salmon is also a source of cholesterol, ranging 23-214 mg/100g depending on the species. According to reports in the journal Science, however, farmed salmon may contain high levels of dioxins. PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) levels may be up to eight times higher in farmed salmon than in wild salmon. Omega-3 content may also be lower than in wild caught individuals, and in a different proportion to what is found naturally. Omega 3 comes in three types, ALA, DHA and EPA; wild salmon has traditionally been an important source of DHA and EPA, which are important for brain function and structure, among other things. This means that if the farmed salmon is fed on a meal which is partially grain then the amount of Omega 3 it contains will be present as ALA (Linoleic acid). The body can itself convert ALA Omega 3 into DHA and EPA, but at a very inefficient rate (2-15%). Nonetheless, according to a 2006 study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, the benefits of eating even farmed salmon still outweigh any risks imposed by contaminants. Type of Omega 3 present may not be a factor for other important health functions. A simple rule of thumb is that the vast majority of Atlantic salmon available on the world market are farmed (greater than 99%), whereas the majority of Pacific salmon are wild-caught (greater than 80%). Farmed salmon outnumber wild salmon 85 to 1. Raw salmon sashimiSalmon flesh is generally orange to red in colour, although there are some examples of white fleshed wild salmon. The natural colour of salmon results from carotenoid pigments, largely astaxanthin (E161j), in the flesh. Wild salmon get these carotenoids from eating krill and other tiny shellfish. Because consumers have shown a reluctance to purchase white fleshed salmon, astaxanthin, and very minutely canthaxanthin (E161g)), are added as artificial colorants to the feed of farmed salmon because prepared diets do not naturally contain these pigments. In most cases the astaxanthin is made chemically; alternatively it is extracted from shrimp flour. Another possibility is the use of dried red yeast, which provides the same pigment. However, synthetic mixtures are the least expensive option. Astaxanthin is a potent antioxidant that stimulates the development of healthy fish nervous systems and that enhances the fish's fertility and growth rate. Research has revealed canthaxanthin may have negative effects on the human eye, accumulating in the retina at high levels of consumption. Today the concentration of carotenoids (mainly canthaxanthin and astaxanthin) exceeds 8 mg/kg of flesh and all fish producers try to reach a level that represents a value of 16 on the "Roche Color Card", a colour card used to show how pink the fish will appear at specific doses. This scale is specific for measuring the pink colour due to astaxanthin and is not for the orange hue obtained with canthaxanthin. The development of processing and storage operations, which can be detrimental on canthaxanthin flesh concentration, has led to an increased quantity of pigments added to the diet to compensate for the degrading effects of the processing. In wild fish, carotenoid levels of up to 20-25 mg are present, but levels of canthaxanthin are, in contrast, minor. Canned salmon in the U.S. is usually wild Pacific catch, though some farmed salmon is available in canned form. Smoked salmon is another popular preparation method, and can either be hot or cold smoked. Lox can refer either to cold smoked salmon or to salmon cured in a brine solution (also called gravlax). Raw salmon flesh may contain Anisakis nematodes, marine parasites that cause Anisakiasis. Before the availability of refrigeration, the Japanese did not consume raw salmon. Salmon and salmon roe have only recently come into use in making sashimi (raw fish) and sushi.
The various species of salmon have many names, and varying behaviors.
Atlantic Ocean species
Atlantic salmonAtlantic ocean species belong to the genus Salmo. They include,
Atlantic salmon or Salmon (Salmo salar), is the species after which all the others are named.
Pacific Ocean species
Pacific species belong to the genus Oncorhynchus, some examples include;
Cherry salmon (Oncorhynchus masu or O. masou) is found only in the western Pacific Ocean in Japan, Korea and Russia and also landlocked in central Taiwan's Chi Chia Wan Stream.
Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is also known locally as King, Tyee, Spring salmon, Quinnat, Tule, or Blackmouth salmon. Chinook are the largest of all Pacific salmon, frequently exceeding 30 lb (14 kg).
Chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) is known locally as Dog or Calico salmon. This species has the widest geographic range of the Pacific species: south to the Sacramento River in California in the eastern Pacific and the island of Kyushu in the Sea of Japan in the western Pacific; north to the Mackenzie River in Canada in the east and to the Lena River in Siberia in the west.
Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) is also known locally as Silver salmon. This species is found throughout the coastal waters of Alaska and British Columbia and up most clear-running streams and rivers.
Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), known as humpies in south east Alaska, are found from northern California and Korea, throughout the northern Pacific, and from the Mackenzie River in Canada to the Lena River in Siberia, usually in shorter coastal streams. It is the smallest of the Pacific species, with an average weight of 3.5 lb (1.6 kg) to 4 lb (1.8 kg).
Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) is known in the USA as Red salmon. This lake-rearing species is found south as far as the Klamath River in California in the eastern Pacific and northern Hokkaido Island in Japan in the western Pacific and as far north as Bathurst Inlet in the Canadian Arctic in the east and the Anadyr River in Siberia in the west. Although most adult Pacific salmon feed on small fish, shrimp and squid; sockeye feed on plankton that they filter through gill rakers.
Steelhead or Steelhead trout or Rainbow trout (Oncorhychus mykiss) are river spawners, usually found in the same rivers that produce chinook, especially the Columbia, Snake, Skeena, and other large rivers on the Pacific Coast. Steelhead have also been introduced into some rivers surrounding the Laurentian Great Lakes.
Land-locked salmon (Salmo salar sebago) live in a number of lakes in eastern North America. This subspecies of Atlantic Salmon is non-migratory, even when access to the sea is not barred.
Kokanee salmon is a land-locked form of sockeye salmon.
Huchen or Danube salmon (Hucho hucho), the largest permanent fresh water salmonid.
Salmon Oil is a nutritional supplement that supplies Omega-3 fatty acids Salmon oil contains omega 3 fatty acids, an excellent source to boost up HDL (Good cholesterol) in your blood. Cold-pressed salmon oil is good for the cholesterol level. Tests show that consumption of raw salmon oil produced by gentle cold pressing increases the level of good cholesterol in the blood, so-called HDL cholesterol. Salmon oil is also a rich source of protein. When buying salmon oil supplements, make sure to find the ones that are molecularly distilled to clean any impurities and contaminants found in the salmon fish. Note that farm raised salmon, in addition to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), also contains contaminants known as dioxins. When taking Salmon Oil, alwats remember that moderation is the key.

The food we eat contains different ratios and types of Vitamins and until the 1900's, eating food was the only way vitamins could be obtained by the body. Vitamins as commodity chemicals have only been introduced in the last 100 years and are freely available these days in pills or liqued form. Vitamins are either water soluble or fat soluble. vitamins contain no calories. The term vitamins does not include dietary minerals, essential fatty acids, or essential amino acids. The link between vitamins and food has long been established in history. The ancient Egyptians found that feeding a patient liver(loaded with Vitamins A), would help cure night blindness. Scottish surgeon James Lind discovered in 1747, that citrus(Vitamins C), foods helped prevent scurvy. In humans there are thirteen vitamins, divided into two groups: four fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) and nine water-soluble vitamins (eight B vitamins and vitamin C). Vitamins A may be useful in helping to maintain the skin and mucous membranes. It may also be helpfull in maintaining the bones and teeth. It may be usefull in assisting the treatment of dry, or rough skin and other minor skin disorders. It may also be helpfull in maintaining the health of the eyes, hair and nails. Good sources of Vitamins A are oily fish, liver, egg yolk and dairy produce. Recomended Dosage : 5,000 iu. If there is a deficiency it may cause depression, anxiety, nausea or poor appetite. Good sources are meat, fish, nuts and whole grains. B2 : Riboflavin Vitamins: Essential for healthy skin and the eyes. A deficiency may cause fatigue or eye problems. Good sources are cheese, yoghurt, milk, almonds and green vegtables. B3 : Niacin Vitamins: This is necessary for the metabolism of carbohydrates. It has been used to help lower cholesterol levels. B6 : Pyridoxine Vitamins: Used for the metabolism of protein and formation of red blood cells. Women often use it for PMS. Smoking will increase the chance of a deficiency. Good sources are bananas, fish, meat, poultry and nuts. B12 : Cuanocobalamin Vitamins: This is needed for the formation of red blood cells. It is also used for nerve cells and genetic materials. It helps to maintain the functioning of the nervous system. Good sources are eggs, liver, meat and milk. Vitamin C Vitamins: Ascorbic Acid : is required for the healing and repair of tissue, formation of collagen, healthy bones, gums and teeth. It is also necessary for the absorption of iron in the body. People who smoke should take extra suopplements of Vitamin C as smoking will deplete Vitamins C supplies. However do not overdo it as excess Vitamin C may cause diarrhoea. Good sources for Vitamins C are citrus fruits, cabbage and spinach. A long term study reported in the issue of Stroke, Journal of the American Heart Association found that the higher the level of vitamins C in the bloodstream, the lower the odds of suffering a stroke. In fact, stroke risk was 70 percent higher among the group with the least vitamin C than that with the most vitamin C in their diets. But the question remains as to which factor is the white knight: vitamins C itself, a combination of diet and healthy lifestyle, or the symbiotic mix of nutrients in vegetables, with vitamin C acting as a marker of a produce rich diet. Research epidemiologists from Tokyo Medical and Dental University followed more than 2,100 men and women, age 40 and older, living in rural Japan 20 years. The more fruits and vegetables they ate, the higher their vitamin C levels. The group that ate vegetables six or seven days weekly suffered strokes at less than half the rate of the group that ate them only twice or less weekly. Medical researchers in Cambridge, England, found that people with high levels of vitamins C in their blood were less likely to die of heart disease. The physicians tracked almost 20,000 people, ages 45 to 79, for four years, checking their blood concentration of vitamin C. The researchers also kept track of any causes of death. They found that a 50-gram daily increase in fruit and vegetable intake of vitamins C was linked with about a 20 percent reduction in mortality, independent of age, blood pressure, blood cholesterol levels, cigarette smoking habits and diabetes. The physicians also noted that vitamin C was tied to a lower cancer mortality rate in men but not in women. The researchers suggest that small increases in fruit and vegetable intake -- about one serving daily -- has encouraging prospects for possible prevention of disease. They reported their findings in the British medical journal Lancet. Vitamins D is important for muscle strength and the balance of calcium in your bones and teeth. Good sources for Vitamins D are cod liver oil, eggs, sunlight, milk and sardines. Vitamins E helps to protect tissue from wear and tear. It also helps to prevent fats and cholesterol from causing damage to the organs. Good sources for Vitamins E are vegtables, seeds, nuts and seafoods. Vitamins K is a fat soluble vitamin. Vitamin K is also known as the clotting vitamin because without it blood would not clot. Vitamins K has been prescribed by doctors for years to help diminish bruises. A topical ointment containing the vitamin can be prescribed if bruising is a problem. Vitamins K has also been found to reduce the dark circles that people get and seem to worsen when you reach your 40's. Folic acid is another B Vitamins (B-9). It is the most commonly deficient vitamin in most modern diets most especially in the elderly. Deficiency in pregnancy is now much publicized as causing birth defects (neural tube defects). However, less well recognized is that folate vitamins deficiencies can also cause depression, probably because B-9 is needed in the maintenance of normal serotonin levels, another important "good mood" brain messenger chemical. Indeed, the most popular prescription anti-depressants are designed to optimize serotonin levels. As folic acid is also needed for energy production and red blood cell formation, deficiencies can also cause anemia, fatigue, insomnia, memory problems and even labored breathing. After you open a container of Vitamins you should throw away the cotton wool as it can attract moisture and damage the Vitamins. Calcium is a major mineral type that is very important to the human body. Our bones contain large amounts of calcium which helps to make them rigid and firm. Calcium is also needed for other tasks including nerve and muscle function and blood clotting. When dietary calcium is too low calcium will be lost from bone and used for other critical functions. Calcium in the blood is tightly controlled by the body so calcium status cannot be assessed by measuring blood calcium levels. The principle functions are skeletal mineral in bones and teeth, muscle contraction and relaxation, nerve function, intracellular regulation, extracellular enzyme cofactor, blood clotting, blood pressure Because people often do not get enough calcium from their diets osteoporosis is now a major health concern. Deficiencies are linked to Osteoporosis, stunted childhood growth, (possible hypertension, preeclampsia, and colon cancer). Calcium It can help estrogen replacement therapy work more effectively. Recent studies have shown estrogen plus daily calcium is up to three times more effective in building bone than estrogen alone. Toxicity is rare, due to excretion. Possible imbalance of other minerals. Its very difficult to get too much calcium. Any excess which the body cannot use is excreted from the body in the urine and stool. Recommended Intakes RDAs: 1000 mg/day for adult males Good food sources are Dairy, fish (with bones), tofu, legumes, kale, broccoli and fortified foods. Zinc is found in almost every cell in the human body. Zinc is contained within more than 200 enzymes, substances needed for biochemical reactions. Zinc is important for a healthy immune system , for healing cuts and wounds , and for maintaining your sense of taste and smell. Zinc also supports normal growth and development during pregnancy, childhood, and adolescence. Good souces of zinc are meat, poultry, beans, nuts, dairy products and oysters. Zinc deficiency can occur when zinc intake is inadequate, when there are increased losses of zinc from the body, or when the body's requirement for zinc increases. There is no specific deficiency disease associated with zinc. Instead, many general signs of zinc deficiency can appear, including poor appetite, weight loss, delayed healing of wounds, taste abnormalities, and mental lethargy. As body stores of zinc decline, these symptoms worsen and are accompanied by diarrhea, hair loss, recurrent infection, and a form of dermatitis, a skin disorder. Magnesium is a mineral that is needed by every cell of your body. half of your body's magnesium stores are found inside cells of body tissues and organs, and half are combined with calcium and phosphorus in bone. Magnesium is needed for more than 300 biochemical reactions in the body. It helps maintain normal muscle and nerve function, keeps heart rhythm steady, and bones strong. It is also involved in energy metabolism and protein synthesis. The best sources of magnesium are green vegetables, nuts, seeds, and some whole grains are also good sources of magnesium. Evidence suggests that magnesium may play an important role in regulating blood pressure. Magnesium is important to carbohydrate metabolism. It may influence the release and activity of insulin, the hormone that helps control blood glucose levels. Elevated blood glucose levels increase the loss of magnesium in the urine, which in turn lowers blood levels of magnesium. This explains why low blood levels of magnesium (hypomagnesemia) are seen in poorly controlled type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Herbs are plants that are usually grown for medicinal or culinary reasons. Culinary herbs are non-woody, but medicinal herbs may be a shrub or woody plants. The use of herbs in healing is an ancient practise. Evidence has been found in Iraq that 60,000 years ago Neanderthals used herbs for healing. There is basically three main Herbal traditions used these days:
Western, based on Greek and Roman sources
Ayurvedic from India
Chinese herbal medicine It should be noted that also some herbs are dangerous and poison to humans. Also the legal status of herbal ingredients varies country by country. You should always consult with your physician before using herbs. Chinese herbology is the Chinese art of combining medicinal herbs. Herbs are moxed to form a hebal cocktail that is tailored to the individual patient. Several different methods to classify traditional Chinese herbs:
The Four Natures: pertains to the degree of yin and yang.
The Five Tastes: are sweet, sour, bitter, pungent and salty.
The Meridians: refer to which organs the herbs act upon.
The history of Chinese herbalism may be traced back to 200 B.C. The Nei Jing is the earliest known document on this and outlines the principles that form the basis of chinese herbalism today. The first major encyclopedia of Chinese herbalism was released by Li Shizen in the 16th century. These days Chinese Herbalism is reffered to as Traditional Chinese Medicine. In China it is a recognized course at university. The three most important principles of TCM are Yin and Yang, Holism and the Five Elements. TCM Traditinal Chines Medicine, views the body holistically. It is seen as a integrated whole. Problems in the one area, affect the others. Running through the body is a network of channeles carrying "qi", life energy. In TCM when the Yin and Yang in the body is disturbed, disease or emotional problems occur. This can be further defined as, interior (yin), exterior (yang), deficiency (yin), excess (yang), cold (yin) and hot (yang). TCM also includes the concept of the Five Elements, earth, fire, wood, metal and water. The concept of the Five Elements applies to all things including the bodies internal organs. Chinese herbs are used to balance these forces. Chinese herbs are classified under the Five Elements according to taste. The opposing Yin/Yang qualities of hot and cold are linked with actions of specific herbs. Chinese herbs work on specific organs and meridians with tendencies of action, Floating and Sinking, Ascending and Descending. In TCM herbs are usually taken as a formula of 10 to 15 herbs. Each herb will have a different role. Chinese herbs may be prepared as pills, tea, powders, creams and lotions. Kampo medicine is the Japanese study and adaptation of Chinese medicine to their own unique herbal medical system and diagnosis. Kampo is primarily concerned with the study of herbs. Currently over 80% of the worlds population uses herbs for health. The history of western herbalism may be traced back as far as 1,500 B.C. where records show herbs found in Egyptian papyri. It was the early writings of physicians in the first and 2nd century A.D. that laid the foundation for modern western herbalism. It was these texts that Islamic physicians used right up to the middle ages. This learning of heabs found its way back to Europe through the Knights Templar. Previously the Catholic Church had suppressed this learning. Herbalism flourished, especially through the celtic and cathar religeons. But during the times of the inquisition, anyone caught practising herbalism was sentanced to death. Eventually with the declining power of the church herbalism started to find its way into everyday society. A number of writings on herbs started to appear. As the growth of science in medicine became strong from the 18th century, herbal medicine began to suffer a decline. Herbal lore still however remained popular among many. In the late 1900 herbal medicine started to become popular again. It has continued to grow and has eventually found its place alongside scientific medicine. Western herbalism is a holistic system that seeks to restore the bodies self healing abilities. Remedies are tailored to the patient, not the symptoms. Western herbalists attribute disease to the bodies self regulating state of harmony. The herbalists skill lies in knowing the actions of different plants on specific body systems. Herbal synagy is the key to western herbalism. This theory is that parts of whole plants are more effective than the isolated constituints used in drugs that are made synthetically. The herbal remedies are extracted from different parts of the plant including leaves and flowers. It is this mix that creates the herbal synagy. On the other hand pharmaceutical companies often isolate and synthesize the active ingrediants of a plant. To ensure a high concentration of active constituints herbs are processed quickly after harvesting. The petals are removed from the dried flower before being stored. The seeds are separated by drying bunches upside down and then shaking over a papwer lined tray. The root parts are chopped into small pieces and left to dry for a few hours in a warm oven. The gel is collected from plants by scrapping along the inside of the leaf. Bark, roots and berries are sometimes boiled in water to extract the active ingrediants. Herbal remedies may take longer to work than traditional remidies. Always consult only a qualified herbalist before using herbs. Milk Thistle has been used for over two thousand years. It can be traced back to the time of the ancient Greek healers through to modern day physicians. Also known as Silybum, St Marys Thistle, Marians Thistle and the Blessed Thistle. Milk Thistle is strongly associated with the liver. A large amount of research data points to Milk Thistle's use as a liver protector and regenerator. Milk Thistle may be of help in cirrhosis, viral and alcohol induced hepatitis and fatty infiltration of the liver. Milk Thistle has three main active compounds known together as Silymarin. These compounds work to restore the liver. Evening Primrose Oil has been around for 70,000 years. Ancient American Indians used it in healing. The medicinal properties of Evening Primrose Oil have been proven in clinical studies and controlled experiments. Evening Primrose Oil contains Linolenic Acid, Gamma Linilenic Acid, both essential ingredients in the important production of Prostaglandins. Prostaglandins are in constant use in the body controlling the way we feel and rejuvenating cells. They cannot be stored and have to be replenished. Evening Primrose Oil may be of use in treating PMT. It may also be of use for those suffering rheumatoid arthritis. Evening Primrose Oil may also assist in circulation, high blood pressure, reduction of cholesterol and maintenance of healthy arteries. Guarana has a broad spectrum effect. It may assist brain function and aid alertness and concentration. It may be of help for headaches and it may be of help to slimmers in that it helps to allay the feelings of hunger. Its beneficial effect is thought to be the result of its action in balancing the bodys vital energy flow. The natural action of Guarana may be of help in the treatment of depression. Regular use of Guarana may provide extra stamina, endurance, increase strength, reduce fatigue and increase concentration. Pau Darco is a gigantic tree that may grow as high as 48 metres. For hundreds of years the native Indians have used the inner bark for medicinal purposes. Externally it has been used for skin disorders such as eczema. A tea was brewed and used for sore throats, fevers and digestive orders. Pau Darco may be of help in treating reducing canida overgrowth. Pau Darco may also enhance the immune system. Used with a proper diet and Lactobacillus it has potential to restore balance were thrush is a problem. Certain studies Lapachol from Pau Darco and found it inhibits various strains of virus. There are also some accounts it may be helpful in treating cancer. Pau Darco should be used with caution by those using anticoagulant medications. Astragalus is native to China. Chinese practitioners believed it to be a superior tonic for replenishing vital energy. Astragalus may present an exciting answer to natural health protection and immune system strength. The main benifit of Astragalus may be in its benifit in helping those with chronic immune dysfunction. Astragalus is helpful in the long term recovery of people. It may be of use as a preventative against recurring colds, flu, bronchitis and supporting recovery from long term viral infections. Astragalus boosts the immune system over long periods of time. Astragalus may be a powerfull tool for immune system recovery. Ginkgo is the oldest living tree known to man dating back over 200 million years. It is a strong tree that shows resistance to invading insects, pollution, disease and the changes of time. In Germany and France Ginkgo is routinely prescribed by Physicians. Within Ginkgo there are many active constituants. Ginkgo has been found to have a stabilizing effect on cell membranes, which has been useful in maintaining the health of capillaries. Ginkgo has also been shown to be of help to people suffering from tinnitus. A quality Ginkgo supplement should contain at least 24 per cent of Ginkgo flavoneglycosides. Canola oil is made from the canola plant. Canola plants produce pods containing seeds that are crushed to release oil. Compared to other oils on the market, canola oil is the lowest in saturated fat and is high in monounsaturated fat. Polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats, on the other hand, help reduce blood cholesterol levels by lowering the "bad" LDL levels and increasing the "good" HDL levels of cholesterol in the blood. Another benefit of canola oil is that it contains linolenic fatty acid, which has been shown to lower blood triglyceride levels while also having an anticlogging effect.

The Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 5-8 m tall. The pomegranate is native to the region from Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iran to the Himalayas in northern India and has been cultivated and naturalized over the whole Mediterranean region and the Caucasus since ancient times. It is widely cultivated throughout Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, India, the drier parts of southeast Asia, Peninsular Malaysia, the East Indies, and tropical Africa. Introduced into Latin America and California by Spanish settlers in 1769, pomegranate is now cultivated mainly in the drier parts of California and Arizona for its fruits exploited commercially as juice products gaining in popularity. In the global functional food industry, pomegranate is included among a novel category of exotic plant sources called superfruits. In the Northern Hemisphere, the fruit is typically in season from September to January. In the Southern hemisphere, it is in season from March to May. The leaves are opposite or sub-opposite, glossy, narrow oblong, entire, 3-7 cm long and 2 cm broad. The flowers are bright red, 3 cm in diameter, with four to five petals (often more on cultivated plants). The fruit is between a lemon and a grapefruit in size, 5-12 cm in diameter with a rounded hexagonal shape, and has thick reddish skin and around 600 seeds. The seeds and surrounding pulp, ranging in colour from white to deep red, called arils, are edible; indeed, the fruit of the pomegranate is a berry. There are some cultivars which have been introduced that have a range of pulp colours such as purple. Punica granatum nana is a dwarf variety of P. granatum popularly used as Bonsai trees and as a patio plant. The only other species in the genus Punica is the Socotran pomegranate (Punica protopunica), which is endemic to the island of Socotra. It differs in having pink (not red) flowers and smaller, less sweet fruit. Pomegranates are drought tolerant, and can be grown in dry areas with either a Mediterranean winter rainfall climate or in summer rainfall climates. In wetter areas, they are prone to root decay from fungal diseases. They are tolerant of moderate frost, down to about -10C (14F). The name "pomegranate" derives from Latin pomum ("apple") and granatus ("seeded"). This has influenced the common name for pomegranate in many languages (e.g. German Granatapfel, seeded apple). The genus name Punica is named for the Phoenicians, who were active in broadening its cultivation, partly for religious reasons. In classical Latin, where "malum" was broadly applied to many apple-like fruits, the pomegranate's name was malum punicum or malum granatum, the latter giving rise to the Italian name melograno, or less commonly melagrana. Even though this fruit does not originate from China, one common nickname is "Chinese apple." In German and Dutch, the term "Chinese Apple" (apfelsine in German), refers to the orange The pomegranate originated from Persia and has been cultivated in the Mediterranean region for several millennia. In Georgia, and Armenia to the east of the Black Sea, there are wild pomegranate groves outside of ancient abandoned settlements. The cultivation of the pomegranate has a long history in Armenia, where decayed remains of pomegranates dating back to 1000 BC have been found. A large, dry pomegranate was found in the tomb of Djehuty, the butler of Queen Hatshepsut; Mesopotamian cuneiform records mention pomegranates from the mid-Third millennium BC onwards. It is also extensively grown in South China and in Southeast Asia, whether originally spread along the route of the Silk Road or brought by sea traders. ancient city of Granada in Spain was renamed after the fruit during the Moorish period. Spanish colonists later introduced the fruit to the Caribbean and Latin America. After opening the pomegranate by scoring it with a knife and breaking it open, the arils (seed casings) are separated from the skin (peel) and internal white supporting structures (pith and carpellary membrane). Separating the red arils can be simplified by performing this task in a bowl of water, whereby the arils will sink and the white structures will float to the top. The entire seed is consumed raw, though the fleshy outer portion of the seed is the part that is desired. The taste differs depending on the variety of pomegranate and its state of ripeness. It can be very sweet or it can be very sour or tangy, but most fruits lie somewhere in between, which is the characteristic taste, laced with notes of its tannin. Providing 16% of an adult's daily vitamin C requirement per 100 ml serving, pomegranate aril juice is also a good source of the B vitamin, pantothenic acid, potassium and antioxidant polyphenols. In preliminary laboratory research and human pilot studies, juice of the pomegranate has been found effective in reducing heart disease risk factors, including LDL oxidation, macrophage oxidative status, and foam cell formation, all of which are steps in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Tannins such as punicalagins have been identified as the primary components responsible for the reduction of oxidative stress which led to these risk factors. Pomegranate has been shown to reduce systolic blood pressure by inhibiting serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). The juice may also have antiviral and antibacterial effects against dental plaque. Pomegranate juice is juice made from the pomegranate fruit. Pomegranate juice is a Middle Eastern beverage. Pomegranate juice is also used in cooking both as a fresh juice and as a concentrated syrup ("pomegranate molasses") in dishes such as the Persian fesenjan and ash-e anar and the Levantine muhammara. Possible health benefits Pomegranate juice:
While preliminary research has shown that the fruit juice may play a role in reducing the risk of cancer, can reduce serum cholesterol, and protect arteries from clogging, more research is needed to validate these findings. Its possible benefits also need to be balanced against its high caloric content derived from its natural sugars. The cholesterol reduction effect has been observed only in small studies. This, as well as the anti-clogging effect of pomegranate juice, are the result of its concentration of antioxidants, and are similar to the effects shown in studies of red wine, black tea, and purple grape juice.

Black Tea is more oxidized than the green, oolong and white varieties. All four varieties are made from leaves of Camellia sinensis. Black tea is generally stronger in flavor and contains more caffeine than the less oxidized teas. In Chinese and culturally influenced languages, black tea is known as "red tea". The name black tea, however, could alternatively refer to the colour of the oxidized leaves. In Chinese, "black tea" is a commonly used classification for post-fermented teas, such as Pu-erh tea. However, in the Western world, "red tea" more commonly refers to rooibos, a South African tisane. While green tea usually loses its flavor within a year, black tea retains its flavor for several years. For this reason, it has long been an article of trade, and compressed bricks of black tea even served as a form of de facto currency in Mongolia, Tibet, and Siberia into the 19th century. It was known since the Tang Dynasty that black tea steeped in hot water could also serve as a passable cloth dye for the lower classes that could not afford the better quality clothing colors of the time. However, far from being a mark of shame, the "brown star" mark of the dying process was seen as much better than plain cloth and held some importance as a mark of the lower merchant classes through the Ming Dynasty. The tea originally imported to Europe was either green or semi-oxidized. Only in the 19th century did black tea surpass green in popularity. Although green tea has recently seen a revival due to its purported health benefits, black tea still accounts for over ninety percent of all tea sold in the West. Plain black tea without sweeteners or additives contains negligible quantities of calories, protein, sodium, and fat. Some flavored tea with different herbs added may have less than 1 gram of carbohydrates. A 2001 Boston University study has concluded that short and long-term black tea consumption reverses endothelial vasomotor dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. This finding may partly explain the association between tea intake and decreased cardiovascular disease events. Generally, unblended black teas are named after the region in which they are produced. Often, different regions are known for producing teas with characteristic flavors. Blends of black tea Black tea is often blended and mixed with various other plants in order to obtain a beverage. Earl Grey: black tea with bergamot oil.
English Breakfast: described as full-bodied, robust, and/or rich, and blended to go well with milk and sugar. Irish Breakfast: it is a blend of several black teas: most often Assam teas and, less often, other types of black tea.
In the United States, citrus fruits such as orange or lemon, or their respective rinds, are often used to create flavored black teas, sometimes in conjunction with spices (such as cinnamon). These products can be easily confused with citrus-based herbal teas, but the herbal products will generally be labelled as having no caffeine; whereas, the tea-based products do contain caffeine. Processing of black tea:
After the harvest, the leaves are first withered by blowing air on them. Then black teas are processed in either of two ways, CTC (Crush, Tear, Curl) or orthodox. The CTC method is used for lower quality leaves that end up in tea bags and are processed by machines. This method is efficient and effective for producing a better quality product from medium and lower quality leaves. Orthodox processing is done either by machines or by hand. Hand processing is used for high quality teas. While the methods employed in orthodox processing differ by tea type, this style of processing results in the high quality loose tea sought by many connoisseurs. Next, the leaves are oxidized under controlled temperature and humidity. (This process is also called "fermentation", which is a misnomer since no actual fermentation takes place.) The level of oxidation determines the quality of the tea. Since oxidation begins at the rolling stage itself, the time between these stages is also a crucial factor in the quality of the tea. Then the leaves are dried to arrest the oxidation process. Finally, the leaves are sorted into grades according their sizes (whole leaf, brokens, fannings and dust), usually with the use of sieves. The tea could be further sub-graded according to other criteria. The tea is then ready for packaging. Tea is usually graded on one of four scales of quality. Whole leaf teas are highest quality followed by broken leaves, fannings, and dusts. Whole leaf teas are produced with little or no alteration to the tea leaf, this results in a finished product with a coarser texture than that of bagged teas, whole leaf teas are widely considered the most valuable, especially if they contain leaf tips. Broken leaves are commonly sold as medium grade loose teas. Smaller broken varieties may be included in tea bags. Fannings are usually small particles of tea leftover from the production of larger tea varieties, but are occasionally manufactured specifically for use in bagged teas. Dusts are the finest particles of tea leftover from production of the above varieties, and are often used for tea bags with very fast, very harsh brews. Fannings and dust are useful in bagged teas because the greater surface area of the many particles allows for a fast, complete diffusion of the tea into the water. Fannings and dusts usually have a darker color, lack of sweetness, and stronger flavor when brewed.

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