JULY IN HISTORY

JULY 1

1543 - England and Scotland signed the peace of Greenwich.

1798 - Napoleon Bonaparte took Alexandria, Egypt.

1847 - The U.S. Post Office issued its first adhesive stamps.

1867 - Canada became an independent dominion.

1876 - Montenegro declared war on the Turks.

1916 - The massive Allied offensive known as the Battle of the Somme began in France. The battle was the first to use tanks.

1968 - The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty was signed by 60 countries. It limited the spreading of nuclear material for military purposes.

1969 - Britain's Prince Charles was invested as the Prince of Wales.

1974 - Isavel Peron became the president of Argentina upon the death of her husband, Juan.

1980 - "O Canada" was proclaimed the national anthem of Canada.

1997 - The sovereignty over Hong Kong was transferred from Great Britain to China.

JULY 2

1566 - French astrologer, physician and prophet Nostradamus died.

1625 - The Spanish army took Breda, Spain, after nearly a year of siege.

1644 - Lord Cromwell crushed the Royalists at the Battle of Marston Moor near York, England.

1858 - Czar Alexander II freed the serfs working on imperial lands.

1937 - American aviation pioneer Amelia Earhart disappeared in the Central Pacific during an attempt to fly around the world at the equator.

1961 - Ernest Hemingway shot himself to death at his home in Ketchum, ID.

1976 - North Vietnam and South Vietnam were reunited.

JULY 3

1608 - The city of Quebec was founded by Samuel de Champlain.

1790 - In Paris, the marquis of Condorcet proposed granting civil rights to women.

1954 - Food rationing ended in Great Britain almost nine years after the end of World War II.

1976 - 103 hostages were rescued by an Israeli commando unit at the raid on Entebbe airport in Uganda.

JULY 4

1946 - The Philippines achieved full independence for the first time in over four hundred years.

1987 - Klaus Barbie, the former Gestapo chief known as the "Butcher of Lyon," was convicted by a French court of crimes against humanity and sentenced to life in prison.

JULY 5

1811 - Venezuela became the first South American country to declare independence from Spain.

1865 - William Booth founded the Salvation Army in London.

1946 - The bikini bathing suit, created by Louis Reard, made its debut during a fashion show at the Molitor Pool in Paris.

1962 - Algeria became independent after 132 years of French rule.

1969 - Rod Laver became the first man to win four Wimbledon tennis titles.

JULY 6

1483 - King Richard III of England was crowned.

1885 - Louis Pasteur successfully tested his anti-rabies vaccine.

1917 - During World War I, Arab forces led by T.E. Lawrence captured the port of Aqaba from the Turks.

1923 - The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was formed.

1945 - Nicaragua became the first nation to formally accept the United Nations Charter.

JULY 7

1898 - The United States annexed Hawaii.

1937 - Japanese forces invaded China.

JULY 8

1099 - Christian soldiers on the First Crusade march around Jerusalem.

1709 - Peter the Great defeated Charles XII at Poltava, in the Ukraine.

1755 - Britain broke off diplomatic relations with France.

1794 - French troops captured Brussels, Belgium.

JULY 9

0455 - Avitus, the Roman military commander in Gaul, became Emperor of the West.

1540 - England's King Henry VIII had his 6-month-old marriage to his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves, annulled.

1816 - Argentina declared independence from Spain.

1922 - Johnny Weissmuller became the first to swim the 100 meters freestyle in less than a minute.

1997 - Mike Tyson was banned from the boxing ring and fined $3 million for biting the ear of opponent Evander Holyfield.

JULY 10

1747 - Persian ruler Nadir Shah was assassinated at Fathabad in Persia.

1925 - The official news agency of the Soviet Union, TASS, was established.

1940 - The 114-day Battle of Britain began during World War II.

1962 - Fred Baldasare swam the English Channel underwater. It was a 42 miles and took 18 hours.

1973 - Britain granted the Bahamas their independence after three centuries of British colonial rule.

1991 - Boris Yeltsin took the oath of office as the first elected president of the Russian republic.

1998 - The Diocese of Dallas agreed to pay $23.4 million to nine former altar boys who said they had been molested by a catholic priest.

JULY 11

1708 - The French were defeated at Oudenarde, Malplaquet, in the Netherlands by the Duke of Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy.

JULY 12

1096 - Crusaders under Peter the Hermit reached Sofia in Hungary.

1543 - England's King Henry VIII married his sixth and last wife, Catherine Parr.

1690 - Protestant forces led by William of Orange defeated the Roman Catholic army of James II.

1691 - William III defeated the allied Irish and French armies at the Battle of Aughrim, Ireland.

1941 - Moscow was bombed by the German Luftwaffe for the first time.

JULY 13

1534 - The Ottoman armies captured Tabriz in northwestern Persia.

1558 - Led by the court of Egmont, the Spanish army defeated the French at Gravelines, France.

JULY 14

1430 - Joan of Arc, taken prisoner by the Burgundians in May, was handed over to Pierre Cauchon, the bishop of Beauvais.

1456 - Hungarians defeated the Ottomans at the Battle of Belgrade.

1789 - French Revolution began with Parisians stormed the Bastille prison and released the seven prisoners inside.

1933 - All German political parties except the Nazi Party were outlawed.

1958 - The army of Iraq overthrew the monarchy.

JULY 15

1099 - Jerusalem fell to the Crusaders.

1410 - Poles and Lithuanians defeated the Teutonic knights at Tannenburg, Prussia.

1685 - The Duke of Monmouth was executed in Tower Hill in England. after his army was defeated at Sedgemore.

1997 - Gianni Vesace was shot to death by Andrew Phillip Cunanan outside his home in Miami, FL.

JULY 16

1774 - Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed the treaty of Kuchuk-Kainardji, ending their six-year war.

1918 - Czar Nicholas II and his family were murdered by Bolsheviks at Ekaterinburg, Russia.

1945 - The United States detonated the first atomic bomb in a test at Alamogordo, NM.

1950 - The largest crowd in sporting history was 199,854. They watched the Uraguay defeat Brazil in the World Cup soccer finals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

JULY 17

1212 - Moslems are crushed in the Spanish crusade.

1453 - France defeats England at Castillon, France.

1762 - Peter III of Russia is murdered and his wife.

1815 - Napoleon Bonaparte surrenders to the British at Rochefort, France.

1966 - Ho Chi Minh orders mobilization of North Vietnam to defend against American airstrikes.

JULY 18

0064 - The Great Fire of Rome began.

1536 - The authority of the pope was declared void in England.

1812 - Great Britain signed the Treaty of Orebro, making peace with Russia and Sweden.

1872 - The Ballot Act was passed in Great Britain, providing for secret election ballots.

1936 - The Spanish Civil War began as Gen. Francisco Franco led an uprising of army troops based in Spanish North Africa.

1971 - New Zealand and Austrailia announced they would pull their troops out of Vietnam.

JULY 19

1545 - King Henry VIII of England watches his flagship, Mary Rose, capsize as it leaves to battle the French.

1799 - The Rosetta Stone, a tablet with hieroglyphic translations into Greek, is found in Egypt.

1870 - France declares war on Prussia.

JULY 20

1402 - Tamerlane's Mongols defeat Ottoman Turks at Angora.

1917 - Alexander Kerensky becomes the premier of Russia.

1944 - Adolf Hitler is wounded in an assassination attempt by German Army officers at Rastenburg in East Prussia when a bomb placed underneath the table where Hitler was standing explodes.

1951 - King Abdullah of Jordan is assassinated.

1969 - Neil Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin become the first men to walk on the moon. Armstrong calls the feat "One small step for man, one giant leap for mankind."

JULY 21

1403 Henry IV defeats the Percys in the Battle of Shrewsbury in England.

1711 Russia and Turkey sign the Treaty of Pruth, ending the year-long Russo-Turkish War.

1798 Napoleon Bonaparte defeats the Arab Mameluke warriors at the Battle of the Pyramids.

1954 The French sign an armistice with the Viet Minh that ends the war but divides Vietnam into two countries.

1960 Sirimavo Bandaranaike becomes the first woman prime minister of Ceylon.

JULY 22

1298 King Edward I combines bowmen and cavalry to defeat William Wallace's Scots at Falkirk.

1652 Prince Conde's rebels narrowly defeat Chief Minister Mazarin's loyalist forces at St. Martin, near Paris.

1812 A British army under the Duke of Wellington defeats the French at Slamanca, Spain.

1938 The Third Reich issues special identity cards for Jewish Germans. The acquiescence of the German people facilitated the rise of Hitler and the Nazis.

1943 Palermo, Sicily surrenders to General George S. Patton's Seventh Army. The "man who never was" pulled off one of the greatest deceptions in military history--after his death.

JULY 23

306 Constantine is proclaimed Caesar of the west by the army, while Severus, the former Caesar, is proclaimed Augusta of the west by Galerius.

1540 Thomas Cromwell is beheaded on Tower Hill in England.

1865 William Booth founds the Salvation Army.

1903 The Ford Motor Company sells its first automobile, the Model A. Industrialist Henry Ford helped lead American war production with the gigantic facility at Willow Run.

1944 Soviet troops take Lublin, Poland as the German army retreats.

JULY 24

1567 Mary, Queen of Scots, is imprisoned and forced to abdicate her throne to her 1-year-old son James VI.

1704 Admiral George Rooke takes Gibraltar from the Spanish.

1942 The Soviet city of Rostov is captured by German troops.

JULY 25

1394 Charles VI of France issues a decree for the general expulsion of Jews from France.

1564 Maximillian II becomes emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.

1759 British forces defeat a French army at Fort Niagara in Canada.

1799 Napoleon Bonaparte defeats the Ottomans at Aboukir, Egypt.

1909 French aviator Louis Bleriot becomes the first man to fly across the English Channel in an airplane. The first nonstop transcontinental flight in America was completed by Army Lieutenants Kelly and Macready, who flew from New York to San Diego in 1923.

1943 Italian Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini is overthrown in a coup.

1978 The first test-tube baby, Louis Brown, is born in Oldham, England.

JULY 26

1794 The French defeat an Austrian army at the Battle of Fleurus in France.

1847 Liberia becomes the first African colony to become an independent state.

1886 William Gladstone is replaced by Lord Salisbury as prime minister of England.

JULY 27

1214 At the Battle of Bouvines in France, Philip Augustus of France defeats John of England.

1778 British and French fleets fight to a standoff in the first Battle of Ushant.

1953 Representatives of the United Nations, Korea and China sign an armistice at Panmunjon, Korea, to end the fighting in that country.

JULY 28

1540 Henry VIII of England marries Catherine Howard.

1615 French explorer Samuel de Champlain discovers Lake Huron on his seventh voyage to the New World.

1835 King Louis Napoleon of France survives an assassination attempt by Giuseppe Maria Fleschi.

1863 Confederate John Mosby begins a series of attacks against General Meade's Army of the Potomac as it tries to pursue General Robert E. Lee in Virginia's Shenandoah Valley. A tour of 'Mosby's Confederacy' gives a taste of the famed cavalryman's hair-raising exploits.

1868 The 14th Amendment to the USA Constitution, which guarantees citizenship to all those born or naturalized in the United States, is adopted.

1941 A Japanese army lands on the coast of Cochin, China (modern day Vietnam).

1945 A B-25 bomber crashes into the Empire State Building in New York City, killing 13 people.

JULY 29

1602 The Duke of Biron is executed in Paris.

1693 The Army of the Grand Alliance is destroyed by the French at the Battle of Neerwinden in the Netherlands.

1921 Adolf Hitler becomes the president of the Nationalist Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazis).

1981 Prince Charles of Great Britain marries Lady Diane.

JULY 30

1619 The House of Burgesses becomes the first legislative assembly in America when it convenes at Jamestown, Va.

1940 A bombing lull ends the first phase of the Battle of Britain.

1960 Over 60,000 Buddhists march in protest against the Diem government in South Vietnam.

JULY 31

904 Arabs capture Thessalonica of the Byzantine Empire.

1904 The Trans-Siberian railroad connecting the Ural mountains with Russia's Pacific coast, is completed.

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