JANUARY IN HISTORY

JANUARY 1

1500 The Portuguese explorer Pedro Alvares Cabral searches the coast of Brazil and claims the region for Portugal.

1788 The Times, London's oldest running newspaper, published its first edition.

1808 A U.S. law banning the import of slaves comes into effect, but is widely ignored.

1959 Fidel Castro seizes power in Cuba as General Fulgencio Batista flees.

JANUARY 2

1758 The French begin bombardment of Madras, India.

1839 Photography pioneer Louis Daguerre takes the first photograph of the moon.

1905 After a six month siege, Russians surrender Port Arthur to the Japanese.

1943 The Allies capture Buna in New Guinea.

1963 In Vietnam, the Viet Cong down five U.S. helicopters in the Mekong Delta.

1973 The United States bombs a Hanoi hospital.

JANUARY 3

1777 General George Washington defeats the British led by British General Lord Charles Cornwallis, at Princeton, New Jersey, USA.

1921 Italy halts the issuing of passports to those emigrating to the United States.

1958 The British create the West Indies Federation with Lord Hailes as governor general.

1959 Fidel Castro takes command of the Cuban army.

1961 The United States breaks diplomatic relations with Cuba.

1966 Cambodia warns the United Nations of retaliation unless the United States and South Vietnam end intrusions.

JANUARY 4

1757 Robert Francois Damiens makes an unsuccessful attempt to assassinate King Louis XV of France.

1902 France offers to sell their Nicaraguan Canal rights to the United States.

1936 Billboard magazine publishes its first music hit parade.

1969 Spain returns the Ifni province to Morocco.

1999 The Euro currency goes into effect on the continent of Europe.

JANUARY 5

1477 Swiss troops defeat the forces under Charles the Bold of Burgundy at the Battle of Nancy.

1917 Bulgarian and German troops occupy the Port of Braila.

1919 British ships shell the Bolshevik headquarters in Riga.

1925 Nellie Tayloe Ross of Wyoming is sworn in as the first woman governor in the United States.

1936 Daggha Bur, Ethiopia, is bombed by the Italians.

1979 Vietnamese troops occupy Phnom Penh and recue the Cambodian people from the horror regime of Pol Pot.

JANUARY 6

1066 Harold Godwinson is crowned King of England.

1540 Henry VIII of England marries his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves.

1946 Ho Chi Minh wins in the Vietnamese elections.

1987 Astronomers report sighting a new galaxy 12 billion light years away.

JANUARY 7

1327 King Edward II of England is deposed.

1807 Responding to Napoleon Bonaparte's attempted blockade of the British Isles, the British blockade Continental Europe.

1944 The U.S. Air Force announces the production of the first jet-fighter, Bell P-59 Airacomet.

1975 Vietnamese troops take Phuoc Binh in new full-scale offensive.

JANUARY 8

1681 The Treaty of Radzin ends a five year war between the Turks and the allied countries of Russia and Poland.

1892 A coal mine explosion kills 100 in McAlister, Oklahoma, USA.

1954 During a time of terrible political persecution President Dwight Eisenhower proposes stripping convicted Communists of their U.S. citizenship.

JANUARY 9

1719 Philip V of Spain declares war on France.

1792 The Ottomans sign a treaty with the Russians ending a five year war.

1943 Soviet planes drop leaflets on the surrounded Germans in Stalingrad requesting their surrender with humane terms but the Germans refuse.

1945 U.S. troops land on Luzon, in the Philippines, 107 miles from Manila.

1964 U.S. forces brutally murder six peacefull Panamanian students protesting in the canal zone.

JANUARY 10

1645 The Archbishop of Canterbury, William Laud, is beheaded on Tower Hill.

1724 King Philip V abdicates his throne in favor of his eldest son, Louis.

1863 London's Underground begins operations.

1899 Filipino leader Emilio Aguinaldo renounces the Treaty of Paris, which annexed the Philippines to the United States.

1920 The Treaty of Versailles goes into effect.

1964 Panama breaks ties with the U.S. and demands a revision of the canal treaty.

JANUARY 11

49 BC Julius Caesar leads his army across the Rubicon River, plunging Rome into civil war.

1843 Francis Scott Key, author of "The Star-Spangled Banner," dies in Baltimore.

1916 Russian General Yudenich launches a WWI winter offensive and advances west.

1980 Honda announces it will build the first Japanese owned passenger car assembly plant in the United States.

JANUARY 12

1908 A wireless message is sent long-distance for the first time from the Eiffel Tower in Paris.

1915 The U.S. Congress establishes Rocky Mountain National Park.

1938 Austria recognizes the Franco government in Spain.

1982 Peking protests the sale of U.S. planes to Taiwan.

JANUARY 13

1923 Hitler denounces the Weimar Republic as 5,000 storm troopers demonstrate in Germany.

1947 British troops replace striking truck drivers.

1965 Two U.S. planes are shot down in Laos.

1976 Argentina ousts a British envoy in dispute over the Falkland Islands.

JANUARY 14

1236 Henry III marries Eleanor of Provence.

1526 Francis of France, held captive by Charles V for a year, signs the Treaty of Madrid, giving up most of his claims in France and Italy.

1797 Napoleon Bonaparte defeats Austrians at Rivoli in northern Italy.

JANUARY 15

1624 Riots flare in Mexico when it is announced that all churches are to be closed.

1811 In a secret session, US Congress plans to annex Spanish East Florida.

1919 Peasants in Central Russia rise against the Bolsheviks.

1920 The Dry Law goes into effect in the United States. Selling liquor and beer becomes illegal.

1965 Sir Winston Churchill suffers a severe stroke.

JANUARY 16

1547 Ivan IV crowns himself the new Czar of Russia in Assumption Cathedral in Moscow.

1914 Maxim Gorky is authorized to return to Russia after an eight year exile for political dissidence.

1920 The League of Nations holds its first meeting in Paris.

1942 Japanís advance into Burma begins.

1944 Eisenhower assumes supreme command of the Allied Expeditionary Force in Europe.

1956 The Egyptian government makes Islam the state religion.

1979 The Shah leaves Iran.

JANUARY 17

1601 The Treaty of Lyons ends a short war between France and Savoy.

1773 Captain James Cook becomes the first person to cross the Antarctic Circle.

1819 Simon Bolivar the "liberator" proclaims Columbia a republic.

1963 Soviet leader Khrushchev visits the Berlin Wall.

1985 A jury in New Jersey, USA, rules that terminally ill patients have the right to starve themselves.

JANUARY 18

1486 Henry VII marries Elizabeth of York.

1701 Frederick III, the elector of Brandenburg, becomes king of Prussia.

1778 Captain James Cook discovers the Hawaiian Islands, naming them the 'Sandwich Islands' after the First Lord of the Admiralty, Lord Sandwich.

1948 Ghandi breaks a 121-hour fast after halting Muslem-Hindu riots.

1978 The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) isolate the cause of Legionnaire's disease.

JANUARY 19

1783 William Pitt becomes the youngest Prime Minister of England at age 24.

1847 New Mexico Governor Charles Bent is slain by Pueblo Indians in Taos.

1902 The magazine "L'Auto" announces the new Tour de France.

1915 The first German air raids on Great Britain.

1949 The Chiang Government moves the capital of China to Canton.

1950 Communist Chinese leader Mao recognizes the Republic of Vietnam.

JANUARY 20

1327 Edward II of England is deposed by his eldest son, Edward III.

1941 Hitler meets with Mussolini and offers aid in Albania and Greece.

1946 France's Charles DeGaulle hands in his resignation.

1952 British troops occupy Ismalia, Egypt.

1981 Ronald Reagan is sworn in as president.

JANUARY 21

1790 Joseph Guillotine proposes a new, more humane method of execution: a machine designed to cut off the condemned person's head as painlessly as possible.

1793 The French King Louis XVI is guillotined for treason.

1942 In North Africa, German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel launches a drive to push the British eastward.

1976 Leonid Brezhnev and Henry Kissinger meet to discuss Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT).

JANUARY 22

1807 President Thomas Jefferson exposes a plot by Aaron Burr to form a new republic in the Southwest.

1897 Eighty-two British soldiers hold off attacks by 4,000 Zulu warriors at the Battle of Rorke's Drift in South Africa.

1905 Russian troops fire on civilians beginning Bloody Sunday in St. Petersburg.

1913 Turkey consents to the Balkan peace terms and gives up Adrianople.

1932 Government troops crush a Communist uprising in Northern Spain.

1979 Abu Hassan, the alleged planner of the 1972 Munich raid, is killed by a bomb in Beirut.

JANUARY 23

1932 Franklin D. Roosevelt enters the U.S. presidential race.

1969 NASA unveils moon-landing craft.

1981 Under international pressure, opposition leader Kim Dae Jungís death sentence is commuted to life imprisonment in Seoul.

JANUARY 24

1458 Matthias Corvinus is elected king of Hungary.

1911 U.S. Cavalry is sent to preserve the neutrality of the Rio Grande during the Mexican Civil War.

1946 The UN establishes the International Atomic Energy Commission.

1965 Winston Churchill dies from a cerebral thrombosis at the age of 90.

JANUARY 25

1533 Henry VIII marries Anne Boleyn.

1915 Alexander Graham Bell in New York and Thomas Watson in San Francisco make a record telephone transmission.

1918 Austria and Germany reject U.S. peace proposals.

1955 Columbia University scientists develop an atomic clock that is accurate to within one second in 300 years.

January 26

1699 The Treaty of Karlowitz ends the war between Austria and the Turks.

1720 Guilio Alberoni is ordered out of Spain after his abortive attempt to restore his countryís empire.

1924 Petrograd is renamed Leningrad.

JANUARY 27

1695 Mustafa II becomes the Ottoman sultan in Istanbul on the death of Amhed II.

1924 Lenin's body is laid in a marble tomb on Red Square near the Kremlin.

1965 Military leaders oust the civilian government of Tran Van Huong in Saigon.

1967 Three astronauts are killed in a flash fire that engulfed their Apollo 1 spacecraft.

JANUARY 28

1547 Henry VIII of England dies and is succeeded by his nine-year-old son Edward VI.

1757 Ahmed Shah, the first King of Afghanistan, occupies Delhi and annexes the Punjab.

1921 Albert Einstein suggests the possibility of measuring the universe.

1932 The Japanese attack Shanghai, China, and declare martial law.

1986 The space shuttle Challenger explodes just after liftoff.

JANUARY 29

1813 Jane Austin publishes Pride and Prejudice.

1942 German and Italian troops take Benghazi in North Africa.

1967 Thirty seven civilians are killed by a U.S. helicopter attack in Vietnam.

1984 The Soviets issue a formal complaint against U.S. arms treaty violations.

JANUARY 30

1649 Charles I of England is beheaded at Whitehall.

1933 Adolf Hitler is named Chancellor by President Paul Hindenburg.

1949 In India, 100,000 people pray at the site of Gandhi's assassination on the first anniversary of his death.

1980 The first-ever Chinese Olympic team arrives in New York for the Winter Games at Lake Placid.

JANUARY 31

1606 Guy Fawkes is hanged, drawn and quartered for his part in the Gunpowder Plot, an attempt to blow up Parliament.

1835 A man with two pistols misfires at President Andrew Jackson at the White House.

1915 Germans use poison gas on the Russians at Bolimov.

1968 In Vietnam, the Tet Offensive begins.

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