HISTORY OF CARS

The History of the Car has been a long and challenging one. In 1678 a small steam car was shown off that had been made for the Chinese emperor. It was the founding of the early history of the car. By 1769, Nicholas Cugnot was demonstrating a Automobile in France. By 1801, Richard Trevithick was demonstrating a steam-carriage in Britain. The Car continued its development in Britain until a law governing the use of cars basically stopped development for the rest of that century in Britain.

In 1789, Oliver Evans was granted the first automobile patent in the United States.

The first automobiles that had gasoline powered internal combustion engines were developed in Germany by several different inventors around the same time about 1885. By 1895, the disc brake was patented by Frederick William Lanchester of Britain. In 1889, Panhard et Levassor in France became the first company to form to build just automobiles. Steam, electricity, and gasoline-powered autos competed for the market share. The car was becoming big business in history.

From 1908 to 1927, the Ford Model T became the most widely produced car of its time. The vintage era of Car History lasted lasted from 1919 to 1929 and was dominated by front engine cars. The pre-war era of car history lasted from 1930 to 1948. This ear was perhaps dominated by the Volkswagen Beetle.

The Post-War era of Car History was the greatest period of Car Development.

Although Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is often credited with building the first self-propelled mechanical vehicle or automobile in about 1769, this claim is disputed by some, who doubt Cugnot's three-wheeler ever ran, while others claim Ferdinand Verbiest, a member of a Jesuit mission in China, built the first steam powered car around 1672. In either case FranÁois Isaac de Rivaz, a Swiss inventor, designed the first internal combustion engine which was fuelled by a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen and used it to develop the world's first vehicle to run on such an engine. The design was not very successful, as was the case with Samuel Brown, Samuel Morey, and Etienne Lenoir who each produced vehicles powered by clumsy internal combustion engines. In November 1881 French inventor Gustave Trouvť demonstrated a working three-wheeled automobile. This was at the International Exhibition of Electricity in Paris. An automobile powered by an Otto gasoline engine was built in Mannheim, Germany by Karl Benz in 1885 and granted a patent in January of the following year under the auspices of his major company, Benz & Cie. which was founded in 1883. Although several other German engineers (including Gottlieb Daimler, Wilhelm Maybach, and Siegfried Marcus) were working on the problem at about the same time, Karl Benz is generally acknowledged as the inventor of the modern automobile. In 1879 Benz was granted a patent for his first engine, designed in 1878. Many of his other inventions made the use of the internal combustion engine feasible for powering a vehicle and in 1896, Benz designed and patented the first internal combustion flat engine. Approximately 25 Benz vehicles were built and sold before 1893, when his first four-wheeler was introduced. They were powered with four-stroke engines of his own design. Emile Roger of France, already producing Benz engines under license, now added the Benz automobile to his line of products. Because France was more open to the early automobiles, more were built and sold in France through Roger than Benz sold in Germany. Daimler and Maybach founded Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft (Daimler Motor Company, DMG) in Cannstatt in 1890 and under the brand name, Daimler, sold their first automobile in 1892. By 1895 about 30 vehicles had been built by Daimler and Maybach, either at the Daimler works or in the Hotel Hermann, where they set up shop after falling out with their backers. Benz and Daimler seem to have been unaware of each other's early work and worked independently. Daimler died in 1900 and later that year, Maybach designed a model named Daimler-Mercedes, special-ordered by Emil Jellinek. Two years later, a new model DMG automobile was produced and named Mercedes after the engine. Maybach quit DMG shortly thereafter and opened a business of his own. Rights to the Daimler brand name were sold to other manufacturers. Karl Benz proposed co-operation between DMG and Benz & Cie. when economic conditions began to deteriorate in Germany following the First World War, but the directors of DMG refused to consider it initially. Negotiations between the two companies resumed several years later and in 1924 they signed an Agreement of Mutual Interest valid until the year 2000. Both enterprises standardized design, production, purchasing, sales, and advertisingmarketing their automobile models jointly although keeping their respective brands. On June 28, 1926, Benz & Cie. and DMG finally merged as the Daimler-Benz company, baptizing all of its automobiles Mercedes Benz honoring the most important model of the DMG automobiles, the Maybach design later referred to as the 1902 Mercedes-35hp, along with the Benz name. Karl Benz remained a member of the board of directors of Daimler-Benz until his death in 1929. In 1890, Emile Levassor and Armand Peugeot of France began producing vehicles with Daimler engines, and so laid the foundation of the motor industry in France. The first American car with a gasoline internal combustion engine supposedly was designed in 1877 by George Selden of Rochester, New York, who applied for a patent on an automobile in 1879. In Britain there had been several attempts to build steam cars with varying degrees of success with Thomas Rickett even attempting a production run in 1860. Santler from Malvern is recognized by the Veteran Car Club of Great Britain as having made the first petrol-powered car in the country in 1894 followed by Frederick William Lanchester in 1895 but these were both one-offs. The first production vehicles came from the Daimler Motor Company, founded by Harry J. Lawson in 1896, and making their first cars in 1897. In 1892, German engineer Rudolf Diesel got a patent for a "New Rational Combustion Engine". In 1897 he built the first Diesel Engine. In 1895, Selden was granted a United States patent (U.S. Patent 549,160 ) for a two-stroke automobile engine, which hindered more than encouraged development of autos in the United States. Steam, electric, and gasoline powered autos competed for decades, with gasoline internal combustion engines achieving dominance in the 1910s. Although various pistonless rotary engine designs have attempted to compete with the conventional piston and crankshaft design, only Mazda's version of the Wankel engine has had more than very limited success.

Production of the Car:
The large-scale, production-line manufacturing of affordable automobiles was debuted by Ransom Olds at his Oldsmobile factory in 1902. This concept was then greatly expanded by Henry Ford, beginning in 1914. As a result, Ford's cars came off the line in fifteen minute intervals, much faster than previous methods, increasing production by seven to one (requiring 12.5 man-hours before, 1 hour 33 minutes after), while using less manpower. It was so successful, paint became a bottleneck. Only Japan black would dry fast enough, forcing the company to drop the variety of colors available before 1914, until fast-drying Duco lacquer was developed in 1926. In 1914, an assembly line worker could buy a Model T with four months' pay. Ford's complex safety procedures, especially assigning each worker to a specific location instead of allowing them to roam about dramatically reduced the rate of injury. The combination of high wages and high efficiency is called "Fordism," and was copied by most major industries. The efficiency gains from the assembly line also coincided with the take off of the United States. The assembly line forced workers to work at a certain pace with very repetitive motions which led to more output per worker while other countries were using less productive methods. In the automotive industry, its success was dominating, and quickly spread worldwide. Ford France and Ford Britain in 1911, Ford Denmark 1923, Ford Germany 1925; in 1921, Citroen was the first native European manufactuer to adopt it. Soon, companies had to have assembly lines, or risk going broke; by 1930, 250 companies which did not had disappeared. Development of automotive technology was rapid, due in part to the hundreds of small manufacturers competing to gain the world's attention. Key developments included electric ignition and the electric self-starter (both by Charles Kettering, for the Cadillac Motor Company in 1910-1911), independent suspension, and four-wheel brakes. Since the 1920s, nearly all cars have been mass-produced to meet market needs, so marketing plans have often heavily influenced automobile design. It was Alfred P. Sloan who established the idea of different makes of cars produced by one company, so buyers could "move up" as their fortunes improved. Reflecting the rapid pace of change, makes shared parts with one another so larger production volume resulted in lower costs for each price range. For example, in the 1930s, LaSalles, sold by Cadillac, used cheaper mechanical parts made by Oldsmobile; in the 1950s, Chevrolet shared hood, doors, roof, and windows with Pontiac; by the 1990s, corporate drivetrains and shared platforms (with interchangeable brakes, suspension, and other parts) were common. Even so, only major makers could afford high costs, and even companies with decades of production, such as Apperson, Cole, Dorris, Haynes, or Premier, could not manage: of some two hundred carmakers in existence in 1920, only 43 survived in 1930, and with the Great Depression, by 1940, only 17 of those were left. In Europe, much the same would happen. Morris set up its production line at Cowley in 1924, and soon outsold Ford, while beginning in 1923 to follow Ford's practise of vertical integration, buying Hotchkiss (engines), Wrigley (gearboxes), and Osberton (radiators), for instance, as well as competitors, such as Wolseley: in 1925, Morris had 41% of total British car production. Most British small-car assemblers, from Autocrat to Meteorite to Seabrook, to name only three, had gone under. Citroen did the same in France, coming to cars in 1919; between them and the cheap cars in reply, Renault's 10CV and Peugeot's 5CV, they produced 550000 cars in 1925, and Mors, Hurtu, and others could not compete. Germany's first mass-manufactured car, the Opel 4PS Laubfrosch (Tree Frog), came off the line at Russelsheim in 1924, soon making Opel the top car builder in Germany, with 37.5% of the market.

Diesel:
Diesel engined cars have long been popular in Europe with the first models being introduced in the 1930s by Mercedes Benz and Citroen. The main benefit of Diesels are a 50% fuel burn efficiency compared with 27% in the best gasoline engines. A down side of the diesel is the presence in the exhaust gases of fine soot particulates and manufacturers are now starting to fit filters to remove these. Many diesel powered cars can also run with little or no modifications on 100% biodiesel.

Gasoline:
Gasoline engines have the advantage over diesel in being lighter and able to work at higher rotational speeds and they are the usual choice for fitting in high performance sports cars. Continuous development of gasoline engines for over a hundred years has produced improvements in efficiency and reduced pollution. The carburetor was used on nearly all road car engines until the 1980s but it was long realised better control of the fuel/air mixture could be achieved with fuel injection. Indirect fuel injection was first used in aircraft engines from 1909, in racing car engines from the 1930s, and road cars from the late 1950s. Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) is now starting to appear in production vehicles such as the 2007 BMW MINI. Exhaust gases are also cleaned up by fitting a catalytic converter into the exhaust system. Clean air legislation in many of the car industries most important markets has made both catalysts and fuel injection virtually universal fittings. Most modern gasoline engines are also capable of running with up to 15% ethanol mixed into the gasoline - older vehicles may have seals and hoses that can be harmed by ethanol. With a small amount of redesign, gasoline-powered vehicles can run on ethanol concentrations as high as 85%. 100% ethanol is used in some parts of the world (such as Brazil), but vehicles must be started on pure gasoline and switched over to ethanol once the engine is running. Most gasoline engined cars can also run on LPG with the addition of an LPG tank for fuel storage and carburetion modifications to add an LPG mixer. LPG produces fewer toxic emissions and is a popular fuel for fork lift trucks that have to operate inside buildings.

Ethanol:
Ethanol and other alcohol fuels have widespread use an automotive fuel. Most alcohols have less energy per liter than gasoline and are usually blended with gasoline. Alcohols are used for a variety of reasons - to increase octane, to improve emissions and as an alternative to petroleum based fuel, since they can be made from agricultural crops. Brazil's ethanol program provides about 20% of the nations automotive fuel needs, including several million cars that operate on pure ethanol.

Electric Car:
The first electric cars were built around 1832 well before internal combustion powered cars appeared. For a period of time electrics were considered superior due to the silent nature of electric motors compared to the very loud noise of the gasoline engine. This advantage was removed with Hiram Percy Maxim's invention of the muffler in 1897. Thereafter internal combustion powered cars had two critical advantages: 1) long range and 2) high specific energy (far lower weight of petrol fuel versus weight of batteries). The building of battery electric vehicles that could rival internal combustion models had to wait for the introduction of modern semiconductor controls and improved batteries. Because they can deliver a high torque at low revolutions electric cars do not require such a complex drive train and transmission as internal combustion powered cars. Some post-2000 electric car designs such as the Venturi Fťtish are able to accelerate from 0-60 mph (96 km/h) in 4.0 seconds with a top speed around 130 mph (210 km/h). Others have a range of 250 miles (400 km) on the EPA highway cycle requiring 3-1/2 hours to completely charge.

Steam car:
Steam power, usually using an oil or gas heated boiler, was also in use until the 1930s but had the major disadvantage of being unable to power the car until boiler pressure was available. It has the advantage of being able to produce very low emissions as the combustion process can be carefully controlled. Its disadvantages include poor heat efficiency and extensive requirements for electric auxiliaries.

Gas turbine In the 1950s there was a brief interest in using gas turbine (jet) engines and several makers including Rover and Chrysler produced prototypes. In spite of the power units being very compact, high fuel consumption, severe delay in throttle response, and lack of engine braking meant no cars reached production.

Rotary (Wankel) engines Rotary Wankel engines were introduced into road cars by NSU with the Ro 80 and later were seen in the CitroŽn GS Birotor and several Mazda models. In spite of their impressive smoothness, poor reliability and fuel economy led to them largely disappearing. Mazda, beginning with the R100 then RX-2, has continued research on these engines, overcoming most of the earlier problems with the RX-7 and RX-8.

Rocket and jet cars A rocket car holds the record in drag racing. However, the fastest of those cars are used to set the Land Speed Record, and are propelled by propulsive jets emitted from rocket, turbojet, or more recently and most successfully turbofan engines. The ThrustSSC car using two Rolls-Royce Spey turbofans with reheat was able to exceed the speed of sound at ground level.

Adamson Car History
The Adamson Car was first produced in 1912 in Enfield, Middlesex, England. Founded by R. Barton Adamson. The first cars sold for 125 guineas. Production of the cars seems to have stopped around 1924-25. The exact numbers of the car produced are not known. The final cars from 1923 were the "Twin-Cars" which were effectively two sidecars side by side with the driver in the off-side one and powered by an air cooled 9 hp 1078 cc twin-cylinder Anzani engine with chain drive. For the period, the car had good reliability. It was noted for its handling.

Albion Car History
The Albion Motor Car Company Ltd it was founded in 1899 in Finnieston Street, Glascow by Thomas Blackwood Murray and Norman Osborne Fulton. The factory was originally on the first floor of a building in Finnieston Street, Glasgow and had only seven employees. In 1903 Albion moved to Scotstoun. In 1930, the company was renamed to Albion Motors. Leyland Motors took control in 1951. only two base models, the Albion Clydesdale truck and the Albion Viking bus were continued. Production of these was moved to the Leyland plant at Bathgate in 1980. Leyland eventually dropped the Albion name. In 1993, it was again sold, and the name changed to Albion Automotive. In 1998, American Axle & Manufacturing Company took control.

Alfa Romeo Car History
Founded in 1907 by Cavaliere Ugo Stella and French automobile firm Alexandre Darracq. Originally named Darracq Italiana, the name was later changed to ALFA. During World War One there was a halt on manufacturing for three years. When production resumed in 1919, the company had came under the control of Nicola Romeo. In 1920, the company name was changed to Alfa Romeo. After getting into financial problems, Alfa Romeo came under the control of the government. During World War Two its factories were bombed. Fiat took control in 1986 and formed "Alfa Lancia Spa".

Allard Car History
The Allard Motor Company was founded in 1936 in London, England by Sydney Allard. The company, based in Putney, London until 1945 and then in Clapham, London. In the beginning, Allard cars were built for Trials events. During World War 2, Allard worked on Ford-based trucks. Allard ceased production in 1966, when Sydney Allard died. On the very same night, the Allard factory was destroyed by fire. Allard produced around 1900 cars during its time.

Arkley Car History
Were manufactured by John Britten Garages workshops at Arkley. The first model was a two-seater called Arkley SS, designed by John Britten in 1970. The Arkley was in effect a way of recycling old rusty damaged Austin-Healey Sprites or MG Midgets. Peter May Engineering bought the manufacturing rights in 1979, and production continued until 1995. Since 1971, around 1000 kits have been sold, but the surviving number today is unknown. Some kits were modified, such as a one-off called Pink Bathtub, produced in 1990.

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Ascari Car History
Founded in 1995 in Dorset, England. The company was named after Alberto Ascari (1918 - 1955) who was the first double world Formula 1 champion. In 1998, the Ascari Ecosse was launched. They launched their second car, the Ascari KZ1, in 2000. It was built in their new facility in Banbury. Ascari also developed a Race Resort in the south of Spain. The track was accompanied by a resort, with several road and racing cars available to visitors to test, including former Formula One machinery.

Ashley Car History
The Ashley Car was first produced in 1954. Originally, the Ashley Car was produced in Loughton, Essex, but later moved to Harlow, Essex. The Ashley stopped production in 1962.
Ashley 750: Based on the short wheelbase (6-foot 3 inch) Austin Seven chassis, with its 747 cc engine (hence the model name). Later a long wheelbase (6-foot 9 inch) version was offered. The price of both was the same: £78 for the shell and £25 for the hard top. The early hardtops had gullwing doors but it is believed that none have survived. When Pellandine left, he took the rights to build the short wheelbase version while Ashley just manufactured the long version.
Ashley Sports Racer: Introduced shortly after the 750 for £90, it was made to accommodate wheelbases from 6-foot-11-inch (2.1 m) to 7-foot-3-inch (2.2 m) As the name suggests the shell was primarily designed for track rather than everyday road use and could be mated to an Elva chassis. A number of contemporary racing cars used it.
Ashley 1172: Launched in August 1958, it was initially a roadster with a detachable hard top, to fit the Ford 8 and 10hp chassis of 7-foot-6-inch (2.3 m) wheelbase with the Ford 1172 cc motor from which the model took its name. The Regent chassis was advertised as an alternative underpinning for the shell. Early in 1959 a fixed head coupe was offered whilst from January 1960 the 1172 was also available to fit the 7-foot-10-inch (2.4 m) Prefect ladder frame. The roadster shells retailed for £105 and the coupes for £160.
Ashley Sportiva: Debuting in November 1960, it was initially an 1172 with revised front styling. It was made available as a bodyshell or with an Ashley chassis. It could be had as a drophead or a coupe with two or four seats. Later Sportivas had a revised rear and a longer wheelbase of eight feet to accommodate the new Mark 6 chassis.

Aston Martin Car History
Founded in 1913 by Robert Bamford and Lionel Martin. In 1915, they produced their first cars. But World War One meant everything had to be put on hold. Again after the war, a new company was founded in Kensington. The new car carried the the Aston-Martin name. But the company soon had problems, going bankrupt in 1924. Lady Charnwood took control but the company again failed in 1925. In 1926, a new group of investors took control and renamed the company to Aston Martin Motors. The company moved its plant to Feltham. Despite continued problems and changes of ownership the company survived and during World War Two produced aircraft components. In 1947, David Brown Limited took control of Aston Martin. In 1972, a Birmingham-based consortium took control and later in 1975 sold out to a North American partnership. In 1993, Ford took full control of the company.

Atalanta Car History
The Atalanta Car was first produced in 1937 by Atalanta Motors Ltd in Staines, Middlesex. Only two models of the Atalanta were ever made. The start of the war stopped production in 1939. Only about 20 Atalanta Cars were ever made. The cars were very expensive and the outbreak of war stopped production after only about 20 cars were made. The company continued in existence making pumps and becoming Atalanta Engineering Ltd. Richard Gaylard Shattock revived the name after the Second World War with the RGS Atalanta, offering complete cars with fiberglass bodywork or parts kits until 1958. Lea-Francis, Ford and Jaguar engines were used.

Auburn Car History
The origins of the Auburn Car can be traced to the Eckhart Carriage Company, that was founded in Auburn, Indiana, in 1875 by Charles Eckhart. Eckhart took control of two other local carmakers. The first Auburn was introduced in 1904. In 1909, they moved to a new plant. In 1919, the Eckhart brothers sold the business. The new owners failed to turn a good enough return, and in 1924, Errett Lobban Cord took control of the business. In 1926, Cord formed a partnership with Duesenberg Corporation. They soon introduced high-priced luxury vehicles. However, the cars were too expensive for the depression era. Cord eventually sold his shares and in 1937, production ceased. In 2005, The company's art deco headquarters in Auburn became a National Historic Landmark.

Audi Car History
Audi can trace its beginnings back to August Horch. Horch had been forced out of the original automobile company he founded, so he founded a new company in Zwickau and would later use the name "Audi", the Latin equivalent of his own name. In 1920, August Horch left the Audi company. In 1928, the company was acquired by J S Rasmussen. In 1932. Audi merged with DKW, Horch and Wanderer to form the Auto Union. The four interlinked rings that make up the Audi badge represents these four brands. During World War 2, its Auto Union plants were heavily bombed. In 1969, Audi merged with NSU.

Bean Cars History
Bean Cars were made between 1919 and 1929. The cars were produced in Dudley and Tipton, Staffordshire, England. The first Bean was a resurrection of the pre-World War I Perry car, which had been taken over by A. Harper, Sons & Bean Ltd. Rated at 11.9 RAC horsepower, the 1147-cc 4-cylinder engine was linked to a separate 3-speed gearbox. The car in chassis form initially cost £400, but this was reduced to £245. A four-seat open body was £80. In 1926, the company was taken over by steel supplier Hadfields, from Sheffield. From 1927, the cars were called the Hadfield Beans. Australian expeditionary Francis Birtles made a number of epic and record breaking journeys in Bean Cars, including being the first person to drive from England to Australia in 1927.

Belsize Car History
Founded in 1901 in Manchester, England. The company was founded by Marshall & Company and took its name from their Belsize works where they had built bicycles. In the early years they were a major car manufacturer that employed 1200 people. A bewildering range of models were made including taxis, commercial vehicles and fire engines with engines of up to 14.5 Litre capacity. In 1923, bad times forced a receiver to take control. The company ceased trading in 1925.

Bentley Car History
Bentley Motors was founded on January 18, 1919 in England by Walter Owen Bentley. Bentley was educated at Clifton College, and later was apprentice railway engineer. During World War I, Bentley was a Captain in the Royal Naval Air Service. Bentley won four consecutive victories at the 24 hours of Le Mans from 1927 to 1930. Rolls-Royce took full control of Bentley in 1931. In 1998, Volkswagen took full control of Bentley Motors and Rolls-Royce.

Canada Car History The Acadian Car of Canada was produced by General Motors of Canada from 1962 to 1971. The Bricklin SV-1 was a gullwing door sports car built in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. Production of the car took place from 1974 to 1976, with only 2,854 cars built. Brock Motors Ltd. (formerly Stansell Motors Ltd.), was founded by William Riley Stansell in Ontario, Canada, in 1921. Only one car was ever built. Durant Motors Inc. was established by William Crapo Durant, in 1921. Durant had been the former General Motors CEO. The Fargo truck was produced and sold in Canada by the Chrysler Corporation. Production of the Fargo started in the late 1920s. The Fargo name was discontinued after 1972. Grey-Dort Motors produced cars from 1915 to 1925, in Chatham, Ontario, Canada. By time it ceased operations, Gray-Dort had manufactured some 26,000 cars. The origins of the McLaughlin automobile company started as a blacksmith shop in Ontario, Canada. They soon started producing horse-drawn carriages. In 1907, they started production of automobiles. The first cars were called the "McLaughlin", then later the "McLaughlin-Buick". Eventually, they were called the "Buick". In 1918, the McLaughlin family sold their interests to General Motors.

Chevrolet Car History
Chevrolet was founded by Louis Chevrolet and William C. Durant, in Detroit in 1911. Louis-Joseph Chevrolet was born December 25, 1878, in Switzerland. In 1912, the "Classic Six", a five-passenger touring sedan was introduced. In 1913, Chevrolet introduced its bowtie logo. In 1915, Louis Chevrolet sold Durant his share in the company. In 1917, Chevrolet was merged into GM, as a separate division. William S. Knudsen becomes president of Chevrolet in 1924. In 1953, the Chevrolet Corvette is introduced. The big advance for Chevrolet came in 1954, with the introduction of the small block V8 engine. In 1959, Chevrolet introduces the Corvair. The Chevrolet Cruze is launched in Japan in 2001. The 50th anniversary of the Chevrolet Corvette is celebrsted with a parade of 5,000 Corvettes driven by their owners, converges at the National Corvette Museum in Bowling Green.

Chevrolet Car History
Chevrolet was founded by Louis Chevrolet and William C. Durant, in Detroit in 1911. Louis-Joseph Chevrolet was born December 25, 1878, in Switzerland. In 1912, the "Classic Six", a five-passenger touring sedan was introduced. In 1913, Chevrolet introduced its bowtie logo. In 1915, Louis Chevrolet sold Durant his share in the company. In 1917, Chevrolet was merged into GM, as a separate division. William S. Knudsen becomes president of Chevrolet in 1924. In 1953, the Chevrolet Corvette is introduced. The big advance for Chevrolet came in 1954, with the introduction of the small block V8 engine. In 1959, Chevrolet introduces the Corvair. The Chevrolet Cruze is launched in Japan in 2001. The 50th anniversary of the Chevrolet Corvette is celebrsted with a parade of 5,000 Corvettes driven by their owners, converges at the National Corvette Museum in Bowling Green.

Chrysler Car History
Chrysler was founded by Walter Percy Chrysler, on June 6, 1925. Walter Chrysler had previously worked at GM's Buick plant. He left in 1921, and purchased two Detroit marques, Maxwell and Chalmers. By 1924, the first Chrysler car appeared. In 1928, the Plymouth was introduced. The Dodge Brothers automobile company was then purchased. In 1934, Chrysler introduced the Chrysler Airflow, which turned out to be a poor seller. Interesting to note was that Chrysler created the industry's first wind tunnel to develop the car. During the 1930`s, Chrysler founded a formal parts division under the Mopar (Motor Parts) brand. In 1951, the Hemi V8s, were introduced. In 1961, the DeSoto marque was closed. In April 1964, the Plymouth Barracuda was introduced. In 1966, Chrysler made its move into Europe. The British Rootes Group, and Simca of France were purchased to form Chrysler Europe. In 1978, Chrysler sold these assets to PSA Peugeot CitroŽn. In 1979, Chrysler petitioned the United States government for US$1 billion in loan guarantees to avoid bankruptcy. Lee Iacocca was hired in the position of CEO, and turned the company around and became a hero in doing so. In 1998, Chrysler merged with Daimler-Benz to form DaimlerChrysler AG.

CitroŽn Car History
Andrť CitroŽn was born in 1878. In 1905, he founded the "Andrť CitroŽn & Cie" company. During World War One, CitroŽn produced grenades for the French Ministry of Defence. In 1919, CitroŽn produced its first automobiles, the conventional type A model. CitroŽn Taxis appeared on the streets of Paris In 1921. CitroŽn would later produce toy cars to capture the furture attention of children. In 1965, CitroŽn took control of French carmaker Panhard. CitroŽn went on to purchase Maserati. After suffering severe financial losses, Peugeot SA purchased a 90% stake in Citroen SA, with both companies eventually combining to form PSA Peugeot CitroŽn.

Clan Car History
The Clan Crusader was a fibreglass monocoque British sports car based on running gear from the Hillman Imp Sport, including its Coventry Climax derived rear mounted 875 cc engine. The Clan car company was founed in 1969 and production on the Clan car started in 1971. The factory was located at Washington, Durham, England. It had been set up with the aid of a government grant. The Clan Crusader was sold in either kit of fully built versions. The company closed in November 1973. In the 1980`s Peter McCandless started a new company, Clan Cars Ltd in Northern Ireland. In 1987, the company went into receivership.

Clyno Car History
Developing from a Motor Cycle manufacturer, the Clyno Engineering Company (1922) Ltd, founded by Frank Smith, became the surprise success of British car manufacturing in the 1920s becoming the country's third largest car manufacturer. The Clyno Engineering Company was founded in 1922 by Frank Smith in Pelham Street, Wolverhampton, England. Between 1922 and 1929 Clyno produced in excess of 40,000 cars. The name came from the inclined belt pulleys developed for industrial use and later applied to motor cycles. Clyno were originally involved in motor cycle production. Clyno went bankrupt in 1919. The assets were purchased by Birmingham based R H Collier. The main distributors had been the Rootes Brothers who at one time tried to buy the company. But, from 1928 they decided to concentrate on Hillman and this hastened the demise of Clyno.

Crossley Car History
The Crossley Brothers originally set up business in 1867 based in Manchester, England. In 1904, Crossley built their first car. Crossley Motors Ltd was registered on April 11, 1906 and became the vehicle manufacturing arm of Crossley Brothers. Crossley produced its last cars in 1937. Production:
Approximately....
19,000 cars from 1904 until 1938.
5,500 buses from 1926 until 1958.
21,000 goods and military vehicles from 1914 to 1945.
More than 100,000 Crossley oil and gas engines were produced.

Crouch Car History
Crouch Cars was founded by JWF Crouch in 1912. They were located in Coventry, England. Their first model was a 3 wheeled cyclecar called the Carette. They produced cars unitl 1928. It closed due to the depression. Crouch produced approximately 3000 cars. Of the approximately 3000 cars made only about 5 are known to have survived. At its peak Crouch employed about 400 people and turned out 25 cars a week. John Crouch, the founder, had trained with Daimler and his son Bob worked there after the family firm closed. He eventually became head of bus sales.

Daihatsu Car History
The history of the Daihatsu Car started in 1907, when professors Yoshinki and Turumi from Osaka University established Hatsudoki Seizo Co. Ltd. The company was involved in the manufacture of internal combustion engines. In 1919, two prototype trucks were built which laid the foundation for the company to shift direction to Motor Car production. By 1930, Hatsudoki had launched Japans first domestically produced vehicle, the 500cc Model HA. In 1951, the company became the Daihatsu Kogyo Co. Ltd. In 1974, it became the Daihatsu Motor Company Ltd. These days, Daihatsu is synonymous with small car production.

Dawson Car History
The Dawson Car Company was founded by AJ Dawson in 1918. Dawson had previously been a works manager at Hillman. They were located in Clay Lane, Stoke, Coventry. The only car made by the company was the 11-12 hp with a water cooled, four cylinder 1795 cc overhead camshaft engine coupled to a 3 speed gearbox. It was available in four body styles, most bodied by Charlesworth, and unusually, customers could not buy a chassis only. Only about 700 cars were produced with final production in 1921. In 1921 the Triumph Cycle Company Ltd. bought Dawson's premises and fittings in Clay Lane, Stoke, Coventry but no more of the 11-12 models were made.

Dellow Car History
Dellow motors was founded by Ken Delingpole and Ron Lowe. Dellow was located at Birmingham, England. They first started producing cars in 1949. The first cars used a Ford 10 engine in an A frame chassis with very light simple aluminium bodywork, early cars having no doors. These early chassis frames were made from government surplus rocket launching tubes. Dellow stopped building cars in 1959. Less then 300 cars were produced. Many sporting awards were won by drivers of Dellow cars in the early 1950s, not only in trials (for which they were mainly designed) but also in other events such as driving tests and hillclimbs. Dellows also took overall honours in the MCC organised Daily Express National Rally and the Circuit of Ireland Rally.

Car History of Denmark
The Anglo-Dane was manufactured by H. C. Fredriksen of Copenhagen. They originally built bicycles. The first cars produced by Anglo-Dane were light trucks. About 70 Anglo-Danes were made in total. The Thrige was produced between 1911 to 1917, in Odense, by the Thomas B. Thrige company. The first vehicles were electically powered trucks. In 1918, their auto section merged with Anglo-Dane and JAN to form De forenede Automobilfabrikker A/S manufacturing. The Kewet battery electric Car was originally produced in Hadsund Denmark from 1991 to 1995. In 1998, they were taken over by Kollega Bil. The name was later changed name to ElbilNorge AS.

DeSoto Car History
The DeSoto car was marketed by the Chrysler Corporation from 1928. The model was named after Spanish explorer, Hernando de Soto. The logo featured an image of Hernando de Soto. By the end of 1928, there were over 1,500 agencies selling the DeSoto Car. In 1933, racing car driver Harry Hartz, drove a DeSoto backwards across the United States in a major publicity stunt. In 1934, the DeSoto Airflow car was introduced. It would revolutionize the design of all cars around the world. But despite huge promtion and booming overseas sales, the DeSoto slumped in the United States. The DeSoto soon returned to the conservative style and sales rebounded. But during world war two, car production stopped and the DeSoto factories started military production. Car production resumed in late 1945. The DeSoto model was discontinued on November 30, 1960. The DeSoto name was continued on a line of heavy trucks that were built overseas.

Dodge Car History
The origines of the Dodge Car can be traced back to 1897 1901, when brothers John Francis Dodge and Horace Elgin Dodge set up a bicycle manufacturing business. After a few years they sold the bicycle business. By 1900, they had set up a machine shop in Detroit where they produced bearings and other parts. They also designed motor parts for early Oldsmobiles. They were soon building engines for Ford Motor Company. By 1910, they built a new plant in Hamtramck, Michigan. In 1914, they founded the Dodge Brothers Motor Vehicle Company. On Nov. 14, 1914, the first Dodge car was introduced. In 1917, they started production of motor trucks. In 1925,Dillon, Read & Company purchased the Dodge Brothers Company for US$146 million. In 1928, Dillon Read sold Dodge to the Chrysler Corporation. In 1977, with the collapse of Chrysler Europe, Peugeot took control, then Renault. Dodge was later taken over by DaimlerChrysler.

Elva Car History
Elva was founded by Frank G. Nichols in 1955. Elva was originally located in Hastings, United Kingdom. They produced sports cars. The original model used Standard front suspension and Ford Anglia rear axle with an overhead valve conversion of a Ford 10 engine. This went through various changes up to the 1958 Mark IV with 1100 cc Coventry-Climax engine and independent rear suspension with inboard brakes. In 1961, Elva was sold to Trojan. Production moved to Rye, Sussex; and again in 1966 to the main Trojan factory in Croydon. Production ended in 1968.

Fairthorpe Car History
Fairthorpe Ltd was founded by Donald Bennett in England. Fairthorpe cars were produced from 1954 to 1976. The Fairthorpe Atom car was produced from 1954 to 1957. In 1958, the Fairthorpe Atomata was released. The popular Fairthorpe Electron was intorduced in 1956. The 2 seat coupe Fairthorpe TX-GT was intorduced in 1967.

Fiat Car History
The Fiat car business was founded on July 11, 1899 in Palazzo Bricherasio. By 1900, the first Fiat factory opened in Corso Dante employing 150 workers. In 1904, the Fiat Logo was adopted. The Lingotto factory opened in 1922 making it the biggest car factory in Europe. Fiat suffered a lot during both world war 1 and 2, having its factories destroyed during the later. But the company recovered and in 1953, Fiat produced its first Fiat diesel engine vehicle. By the 1980`s Fiat had expanded and invested into other care makers such as Alfa Romeo, Lancia, Ferrari and Maserati.

Ford Car History
Ford Motor Company was founded in 1903 by Henry Ford. Car production took place in its factory located on Mack Avenue, Detroit. In 1908, Ford introduced the Ford Model T. In 1913, Ford introduced the worlds first moving assembly line. Ford also pioneered the 40 hour work week and the minimum wage. In 1919, Edsel Ford had succeeded his father as president of the company. By 1921, Ford production had exceeded one million cars per year. In 1925, Ford aquired the Lincoln Motor Company. In 1926, Ford Australia is founded. The Lincoln Zephyr is introduced in 1936. During World War Two, production of civilian vehicles is stopped so Ford can focus on producing B-24 bombers and other military equipment for the army. The Lincoln Continental is introduced in 1948. In 1960, both the Ford Falcon and the Ford Galaxie are introduced. In 1967, Ford of Europe is founded. Ford acquires Aston Martin Lagonda and Hertz Rent-a-Car in 1987 and acquires Jaguar in 1989. In 1999, Ford takes control of the Volvo car division.

Frazer Nash
Founded in 1922 by Archibald Frazer-Nash. Some 400 cars were produced until the mid-1930s. Then again from 1948 to 1957 another 85 cars were made. From 1934 to 1939 they were the official British importer for BMW. They were rebadged as Frazer-Nash-BMW. With the onset of war, manufacturing switched to armaments. From 1948 to 1957, 85 sports and racing cars were produced.

Car History of Germany
Production of the Amphicar started in 1961 and ceased in 1968. Total production was 3,878 cars. The Amphicar was designed by Hanns Trippel. The Arimofa car was produced by Ari-Motorfahrzeugbau GmbH of Plauen, Vogtland, between 1921 and 1922. Borgward was founded by Carl F. W. Borgward. They produced cars with the four brand names Borgward, Hansa, Goliath and Lloyd. The company went into bankruptcy in 1961. Fendt was founded by Xaver Fendt in 1937. They produced agricultural tractors and machines. In 1997, they were purchased by AGCO. Glas was founded by Hans Glas in Dingolfing. They are best known for the Goggomobil. They were taken over by BMW. Gutbrod was was founded in 1926 by Wilhelm Gutbrod. A total of 7,726 cars were produced between 1950 and 1954. August Horch & Cie was founded by August Horch and a partner in 1899, at Ehrenfeld. Car production started in 1901. Kleinschnittger produced microcars from 1950 to 1957. Magirus Feuerwehrwerke Ulm was founded by Conrad Dietrich Magirus in 1864, and went on to produce fire-fighting vehicles, trucks and buses. In 1975, Magirus was purchased by Iveco. Maybach-Motorenbau GmbH was founded by Wilhelm and Karl Maybach. They were a producer of engines for Zeppelins. Later, they produced luxury automobiles.

Gilbern Car History
Gilbern Sports Cars (Components) Ltd was founded by Giles Smith(a butcher) and Bernard Friese(engineer) in Wales. Gilbern cars were produced between 1959 and 1973. They were one of a few car manufacturers in Wales. Initial development of the Gilbern car took place behind the butchers shop, in a large shed. Gilbern produced just over 1,000 cars during its time. Three models included:
Gilbern GT - 1959 to 1967
Gilbern Genie - 1966 to 1969
Gilbern Invader - 1969 to 1973.

Ginetta Car History
Founded in 1958, in Suffolk, England by the four Walklett brothers. Ginetta were mainly race cars. The first car, the G2, was produced in kit form. About 100 were made. The G3 was introduced with glass fibre body in 1959 to be followed by the G4 in 1961. In 1989, Ginetta Cars was sold but failed. An international group of enthusiasts based in Sheffield then took control and Ginetta still operates today.

Hillman Car History
Hillman originated in Coventry in the 1880s as a bicycle manufacturer. Founded by William Hillman, the company was taken over in 1928 by Humber and then in 1931, taken over by Rootes. In 1907 Hillman produced their first car the 24HP Hillman-Coatalen. In 1967, Chrysler took control of Rootes. In 1970, they prodeuced the Avenger. These days, Peugeot owns the rights to the Hillman name.

Humber Car History
The history of the Humber Car can be traced back to 1868 and the founding of Thomas Humber's bicycle company. In 1898 a three-wheeled tricar was produced. In 1901, a Humber released a four-wheeled car. By 1913, Humber had become the second largest manufacturer of cars in the United Kingdom. In 1931, Humber was taken over by the Rootes brothers. The Humber Sceptre was the last Humber to be made.

Imperial Car History
The Imperial Autocar Manufacturing company was based in Manchester, England and produced cars from 1901 to around 1906. The company also sold French Lacoste et Battman models with Imperial bodies. The last ones seem to have been sold around 1906. Imperial (Croydon) 1904-1905 Another Imperial was made by the Anti-Vibrator company of Croydon, Surrey. These were electrically powered with a motor in each rear wheel. Imperial (London) 1914 The Imperial cyclecar was made by Impolitico, a theatre lighting company in London, for one year only immediately before the First World War. The power came from a 8hp V-twin Precision engine with a "gearbox" giving seven forward speeds and optional reverse using belts and pulleys. The Model A cost £110 and had reverse, the Model B at £95 did without. About 12 cars were made.

Invicta Car History
Invicta cars were made in England from 1925 to 1950. The company was founded by Noel Macklin with Oliver Lyle. They started out producing Invicta cars from Macklins home garage. Initially, the manufacturer was based in Cobham, Surrey, England from 1925 to 1933, then in Chelsea, London, England from 1933 to 1938 and finally in Virginia Water, Surrey, England from 1946 to 1950. During the 1930`s, production of Invicta almost ceased, but in 1946, the company was reformed in Surrey. The new company lasted until 1950 when it was bought by Frazer Nash makers, AFN Ltd.

Isuzu Car History
The Isuzu car gets its name from the Isuzu River in Japan. The river flows through a province dotted with ancient Shinto shrines. Its beginnings date back to 1916 when Tokyo Ishikawajima Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., Ltd. and Tokyo Gas and Electric Industrial Co. make plans to produce automobiles. The first truck is produced in 1924, although it is not until 1934 that the trucks are called Isuzu. In 1949 the name Isuzu is officially adopted as the company name. In 1971, Isuzu entered into a partnership with General Motors and the Gemini was produced. In 1972, The Chevrolet LUV becomes the first Isuzu-built car to be sold in the United States. In 1999, GM raises its stake in Isuzu to 49% , but in 2002 reduces this to 12%. Isuzus corporate mark is the twin pillars representing corporate and societal growth against a sunburst red background.

Car History of Italy
Abarth was founded by Carlo Abarth. They were a producer of Italian racing cars. In 1971, Fiat took control of Abarth. From 1925 to 1928, Amilcar Italiana produced some French Amilcar cars under licence. The Ansaldo car was built from from 1921 to 1931 and was considered to be of top quality. The ASA automobile was created by Giotto Bizzarrini. The car was manufactured by the Bizzarrini company in Milan. Production took place from 1962 to 1969. ATS produced a road-going sports car and a Formula One car between 1963 and 1965. Autobianchi was founded in 1955 by Bianchi, Pirelli and Fiat. They were best know for small cars. Autobianchi was eventaully bought by the Fiat group. It was integrated into Lancia. Gruppo Bertone was founded by Giovanni Bertone in 1914, as Carrozzeria Bertone. Bertone has styled cars for Alfa Romeo, Ferrari, Fiat, Lancia and Lamborghini. During its peak, the company produced as many as 40,000 cars per year. Bizzarrini was founded by Giotto Bizzarrini in the 1960`s. Car production ceased in 1969. Autotecnica Conrero was founded in 1951, by Virgilio Conrero. From 1958 to 1960, they produced sports cars, designed by Michelotti. De Tomaso Modena SpA was founded by Alejandro de Tomaso in 1959, in Modena. Their first model was the Vallelunga, introduced in 1963. In 2004, the company went into liquidation. Fornasari was founded in 2002 by Giuseppe Fonasari as a sportive car producer.

Jaguar Car History
In 1935, the name Jaguar was used for the first time. Previously it had been called the Swallow Sidecar Company, then the Swallow Sidecar and Coachbuilding Co., then the SS Cars Ltd. before finally taking on the famous Jaguar name. Jaguar was originally founded by William Lyons and William Walmsley. The company became famous for its 3.5-litre SS 100 model Jaguar. After World War 2, the company changed its name again to Jaguar Cars Ltd. By 1948, Jaguar had produced the worlds fastest motorcar, the XK 120 Roadster. In 1960, Jaguar took control of Daimler. In 1968 Jaguar merged with Leyland. What followed was a period of confussion and downturn. In 1980, the new chief executive John Egan turned the company around for a brighter future. In 1984, Jaguar was floated on the stock market, only to be taken over by Ford later on.

Jensen Car History
The history of Jensen Cars can be traced to the brothers Richard and Alan Jensen. They originally started out as coach builders. In 1936, they took control of W.J. Smiths & Sons body works and renamed it Jensen Motors. They started building cars, but had to stop production during World War 2. But by 1946, the luxery Jensen PW saloon was produced. Jensen ceased production in 1971. In 2001, Jensen again produced a small number of cars, but had ceased by 2002.

Jensen Car History
The history of Jensen Cars can be traced to the brothers Richard and Alan Jensen. They originally started out as coach builders. In 1936, they took control of W.J. Smiths & Sons body works and renamed it Jensen Motors. They started building cars, but had to stop production during World War 2. But by 1946, the luxery Jensen PW saloon was produced. Jensen ceased production in 1971. In 2001, Jensen again produced a small number of cars, but had ceased by 2002.

Jowett Car History
Jowett was founded by the brothers Benjamin and William Jowett. In 1904, the brothers founded the Jowett Motor Manufacturing Company, in Back Burlington Street, Bradford. The first Jowett was designed in 1906, and went into production in 1910. During World War One, the factory became a munitions manufacture. Car production started again in 1920 with a new name, "Jowett Cars Ltd". In 1935, the company was floated to the public. The company stopped producing cars by 1954.

Kieft Car History
Was founded by Cyril Kieft. Located at a factory in Wolverhampton, Kieft built Formula 3 racing cars and road going sports cars. In 1954 Kieft started to make a two seater sports car which could also be used as a road car. In 1954, Kieft sold the company to racing driver Berwyn Baxter. In 1956, they moved to nearby Birmingham. The company was sold again in 1960 and changed its name to Burmans.

Lagonda Car History
Lagonda was founded in 1906, in Middlesex, England by Wilbur Gunn. He named the company after a river near his home town of Springfield, Ohio. The first car, The Torpedo, was launched in 1907. A number of cars were exported to Russia. In 1935, Lagonda was purchased by Alan Good. During World War I Lagonda made artillery shells. In 1947, Lagonda was purchased by Aston Martin. Between 1974 and 1976, seven Lagonda saloons were produced on the basis of the Aston Martin V8.

Lamborghini Car History
The Lamborghini Automobili company was founded in 1963 by Ferrucio Lamborghini. Ferrucio Lamborghini, who was born in April, used his birth sign, "Taurus the bull" as the new cars symbol. Ferrucio set up a top of the line factory in the town of Sant'Agata. He then set about hiring the best people money could buy. The first Lamborghini cars were the 350GT and 400GT. But the Lamborghini car went on to have a difficult histroy. Georges Henri Rosetti bought 51% of its shares and in 1974, Rene Leimer bought the other 49%. By 1980, Lamborghini had gone into receivership and the Bologna Court sold the company to the Mimran Brothers. In 1987, Chrysler took control of Lamborghini. In 1994, Chrysler Corporation sold Lamborghini to Mega Tech. In 1998, Audi gained full control. Though it has been through difficult times, the future of the car company looks bright.

Lammas Car History
Lammas Limited was based in Sunbury-on-Thames, England and produced cars from 1936 to 1938. About 30 cars were produced and were called the Lammas-Graham. Both the chassis and the engines were from Graham in the United States. The engines were also from Graham and were supercharged 3562 cc 6 cylinder side valve units with a special alloy cylinder head and SU carburettor. The cars cost between £620 and £695.

Lanchester Car History
Lanchester Motor Company in England, was founded by Frederick Lanchester and produced cars from 1895 to 1955. They were located at Birmingham, England. The first car was the Lanchester Five which used a 1311 cc single cylinder air cooled engine. In 1904, in spite of a full order book, the company ran out of money and receivers were called in. The company was re-organised and registered as the Lanchester Motor Company later that year. During World War One, the company made artillery shells and some aircraft engines but some vehicle production continued with the Lanchester 4x2 Armoured Cars built on the Lanchester 38hp chassis for use by the Royal Naval Air Service on the Western Front. In 1931, BSA took control of Lanchester. The last model produced was the Sprite, although only prototypes were produced.

Lancia Car History
Lancia was founded by Vincenzo Lancia in 1906. Vincenzo had previously worked for Fiat. He set up a factory in Turin and by 1907, produced his first production model, the 2543cc Alpha. In 1922, Lancia introduced the Lambda car, which was the first car to have independent front suspension. Lancia was the first company to produce a V4 and a V6 engine. Lancia produced its first military vehicle in 1912, and supplied the Italian Military during World War 1. In 1969, Lancia became part of the Fiat group. Lancias were sold in the Ubited States from 1977 to 1984. In 1994, Lancia pulled out of the UK market are suffering an image problem caused by a rust problem in their cars. One of the trademarks of Lancia is the use of letters of the Greek alphabet as names for its models.

Land Rover Car History
The term Land Rover originally referred to a specific vehicle which was a civilian all-terrain utility launched at the Amsterdam Motor Show, on April 30, 1948. It was only later, that it was used as a brand for several distinct four-wheel drive models. Land Rover originally starting out as an internal division of Rover. The first Land Rover was designed by Maurice Wilks in 1947. A distinctive feature of the bodies was that it was constructed using a lightweight rustproof proprietary alloy of aluminium and magnesium called Birmabright. In 1976 the one millionth Land Rover was produced. Land Rover has had a number of owners, including British Leyland, British Aerospace, BMW and the Premier Automotive Group, a division of the Ford Motor Company.

British Leyland History
The British Leyland Motor Corporation was founded in 1968 in the United Kingdom. The new company had been created after the merger of British Motor Holdings and Leyland Motor Corporation. During its peak, British Leyland owned some 40 different manufacturing plants across the United Kingdom. British Leyland was forced into bankruptcy in 1975 as a result of extremist trade unions. After an enquiry, British Leyland was restructed wit the government becoming the major shareholder. In 1986 it changed its name to the Rover Group. In 1988 Rover Group was sold to British Aerospace (BAe).

Lincoln Car History
The Lincoln Motor Company was founded in 1917, by Henry M. Leland. Leland was previously the founder of Cadillac. Lincoln originally build Liberty aircraft engines. But after the end of the war, Lincoln moved into production of luxury automobiles. Leland had named the brand after his Presdent Abraham Lincoln. In 1922, Ford Motor Company took control of Lincoln for just $8 million dollars. In 1927, Lincoln adopted the greyhound as their emblem. This was later replaced with diamond. In 1936, the Lincoln Zephyr was produced. Production ceases in early 1942 due to World War Two. In 1955, the Continental Mark II was introduced at the Paris Motor Show. The Lincoln Continental Mark III was produced from 1969 to 1971. Lincoln has also had a long history of providing limousines for U.S. Presidents. These days, there is over 1500 Lincoln dealerships worldwide.

Lister Car History
Lister Cars was founded in 1954 by Brian Lister. Inspired by Cooper, he used a tubular ladder chassis, de Dion rear axle, and inboard drum brakes. Like others, he used a tuned MG engine and stock gearbox. It made its debut at the British Empire Trophy at Oulton Park in 1954. Lister had good success on the racetrack with a number of wins. Lister cars stopped production in 1959 but resumed production in the 1980s. The Lister company returned in 1986 as Lister Cars Ltd based in Leatherhead, Surrey. In 1993, they released the "Lister Storm", which used the largest V12 engine ever fitted to a production road car at the time.

Lloyd Car History
Lloyd Cars was founded by Roland Lloyd in Lincolnshire, England, in 1936. Two models were made, separated by World War II, and the company was unusual for a small manufacturer in making nearly all components in-house. The first Lloyed car was basically a cyclecar, that was powered by a single cylinder, water cooled Villiers two-stroke engine. During World War II the company made components for Rolls-Royce Merlin aircraft engines. Production started again in 1946 with the Lloyd 650. Production of Lloyed cars stopped in 1951, but the company continued in general engineering until 1983. About 15 Lloyd cars are thought to survive.

Lotus Car History
Lotus Cars was originally formed in 1952 as Lotus Engineering Ltd. by the Colin Chapman in the United Kingdom. The first Lotus factory occupied an old stable behind the Railway Hotel in Hornsea. During the 1960s, Lotus relocated to a factory at Hethel, where they still are today. The Lotus Car Company has changed hands a number of times during its history. General Motors took control of Lotus in 1986, then in 1993 they sold out to A.C.B.N. Holdings S.A. of Luxembourg. In 1996, Perusahaan Otomobil Nasional Bhd (Proton) took control of a majority share in Lotus.

Marauder Car History
Marauder Cars was founded in 1950, by engineers George Mackie and Peter Wilks. They were originally located in Dorridge, West Midlands but later moved to Kenilworth, Warwickshire. Originally they were called Wilks, Mackie and Company, but in 1951 the name was changed to the Marauder Car Company. Between 1950 and 1952 about 15 cars were made before they closed. Rising costs and tax changes priced the cars out of the market. In 1950 the car cost £1236 rising to over £2000 in 1952. Both George Mackie and Peter Wilks rejoined Rover.

Marcos Car History
Marcos Cars was founded in 1959 by Jem Marsh and Frank Costin, in Bedfordshire, England. The chassis of the Marcos cars were wooden, using techniques employed on the wartime British Mosquito bombers. In 1963, Marcos Cars moved to Bradford on Avon, Wiltshire. In 1971, Marcos cars moved to nearby Westbury, but the business soon closed after financial problems. In 1976, Jem Marsh bought back the rights to the Marcos name. In 1981 the Marcos V6 Coupe car was launched in kit form. In 2000, Marcos GT cars win both British and Spanish GT Championship. Although Marcos again went out of business in 2000, it is now back producing cars again. The Marcos racing car side of the business was sold to Dutch engineering firm, Eurotech.

Marendaz Car History
DMK Marendaz Ltd was foubed by Donald Marcus Kelway Marendaz in 1926, in the premises of the London Cab Company in Brixton. Marendaz had served as a pilot during World War One and had attained the rank of Captain. Up to 50 cars were produced that mostly used Anzani engines. In 1932, the company changed its name to Marendaz Special Cars Ltd and moved to Cornwallis Works, Maidenhead. Production of the Marendaz car stopped around 1937, with up to 120 cars produced. Marendaz eventually moved to South Africa where he produced diesel engines.

Maserati
The name Maserati is a family name that comes from the family that built the car. It has a history of proud car making. The first real headquarters of Maserati was in 1914 in the Bologna's historical district at Via de Pepoli. The first Maserati car was built by Carlo Maserati. In 1926, the first Maserati production car made its appearence at the Targa Florio. It was also the first car to bear the Maserati Trident. The Maserati brothers sold out to the Orsi Group. The Company was then relocated to Modena. In 1973, Maserati went into liquidation, but was saved after government intervention. In 1975, Benelli bought into Maserati and the car maker showed improvement. Its history was looking bright. Fiat Auto purchased 100% of Maserati's shares in 1993, only to sell the shares to Ferrari in 1997.

Mazda Car History
The history of Mazda started in 1920 when the Toyo Cork Kogyo Co., Ltd, was founded in Japan. Originaly they produced machine tools. They moved into car production in 1931 with the Mazda-Go. Although all cars produced carried the name Mazda, it was only formally adopted in 1984. In 1979, Ford Motor Company bought into Mazda and has since gained a controlling interest. It should be noted that during World War Two, Mazda was a major producer of weapoms which were used by the Japanese army.

MG Car History
The MG Car attained its name from "Morris Garages", a dealer of Morris cars in Oxford. MG cars probably started in 1924, but some people debate this year. In 1923, a reference to MG with the octagon badge appearred in an Oxford newspaper. MG was originally owned by William Morris. In 1925, the company was sold to Morris Motors. In 1952, the British Motor Corporation took control of MG. And in 1968, British Leyland took control. Production of the MG car took place originally in Alfred Lane, Oxford. Howver, production soon moved to larger premises in Bainton Road. In 1927, production moved again to Edmund Road, Cowley, Oxford. In 1928, the M.G. Car Company Limited was founded. Also in 1928, MG had its own stand at the London Motor Show. In 1929, MG cars moved to a new factory in Abingdon, Oxfordshire. MG became part of the MG Rover Group in Birmingham, but they went into receivership in 2005. New owners of MG are Nanjing Automobile Group.

Mitsubishi Car History
The origins of the Mitsubishi car can be traced back to 1917, when Mitsubishi Shipbuilding Co. Ltd. produced the Mitsubishi Model A car. The car was completely hand-built and only 22 were made. In 1934, The Mitsubishi Heavy Industries was created after a series of mergers. But at the end of world war two, the company was split in three with a focus on motor vehicle development. During the 1960`s Mitsubishi moved into family car production. In 1964, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries was formed. In 1970, Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (MMC) was formed. In 1971, Chrysler took a 15% share in the company, but this later lead to some friction. By 1980, production had exceeded one million cars a year.

Nissan Car History
The history of the Nissan Car can be traced back to 1911, when the the Kwaishinsha Motorcar Works was founded in Japan. In 1914, the first car the "Dat", was introduced. In 1918, the company changed its name to the Kwaishinsha Motorcar Co. In 1925, it changed again to the DAT Motorcar Co. In 1926, they merged with Osaka-based Jitsuyo Jidosha Co., Ltd. to form the DAT Automobile Manufacturing Co. Ltd. In 1931, the first Datsun was produced. It basically means son of Dat. In 1933, the company and moved to Yokohama. In 1934, there was another merger, this time with Nihon Sangyo Co. Ltd. On June 1, 1934, the company became Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. During the war, Nissan made much equipment for the Japanese Military. From 1947 to 1948, the company was called Nissan Heavy Industries. In 1958, the first Datsun sedan arrives in the United States. In 1966, Nissan merged with the Prince Motor Company. Nissan expanded setting up factories in the United States, Australia, United Kingdom and Mexico. Nissan eventually closed its Australian factory.

Ogle Car History
Ogle Design was founded by David Ogle, in 1954 and was based in Letchworth, Hertfordshire. Ogle originally started out as a designer of industrial and household products. In 1959, Ogle moved into car production. Production of cars ceased in 1962 with the SX250. David Ogle died in 1962 in a car crash involving one of his SX1000 cars. Tom Karen took over as Managing Director and Chief Designer of the company, and car production ceased. The final car was the SX250, an updated Daimler Dart built in 1962. Two were made but Daimler was not interested and the design was sold to Reliant where it became the basis of the Scimitar GT which was launched in 1964.

Oldsmobile Car History
The Olds Motor Vehicle Company was founded in 1897, by Ransom E. Olds in Lansing, Michigan. The name of "Oldsmobile", was adopted from a contest called, "Name the Car". In 1901, Oldsmobile becomes the first car to offer a speedometer. In the same year, the United States Post Office Department orders their first cars, the Oldsmobile. In 1908, General Motors purchased the company. In 1932, Oldsmobile become the first automobile to offer an automatic choke. In 1974, Oldsmobile was the first to offer a drivers side airbag. In 1997, Oldsmobile celebrates 100 years. In December 2000, General Motors announced they would be phase out the Oldsmobile brand. Final production day of the Oldsmobile was April 29, 2004.

Paramount Car History
Paramount Cars was founded by WA Hudson and S Underwood. The Paramount car was initially manufactured in Derbyshire in 1950. The Paramount had an aluminium over wood frame body with BMW like grille and was mounted on a separate tubular steel chassis with front transverse and rear semi elliptical leaf springs. In 1953, the company was bought by Camden Motors and production moved to Leighton Buzzard. Production of the Paramount car ceased in 1956 due to overpricing. After the end of car production the remaining chassis were sold off and several were fitted with Rochdale glass fibre bodies.

Peugeot car history
Peugeot originally started out as a bicycle manufacturer with the Peugeot "Le Grand Bi" penny-farthing in 1882. Even after it started building cars, Peugeot continued building bikes for a long time. In 1889, the first Peugeot car was produced. It was a three-wheeled steam-powered car and the start of what would become a long history of car making. Peugeot became the first manufacturer in history to fit rubber tires to a petrol powered car. In 1903, Peugeot extended its range by also moving into motorcycle production. During the first world war, Peugeot produced mostly arms for the military. In the second world war wth Germany occupying France, the German military took control of the Peugeot factories. In 1975, Peugeot took control of CitroŽn. In 1978, they took control over the European division of Chrysler. These days, Peugeot is also a major producer of power tools.

Piper Car History
Piper Cars was a manufacturer of specialist sports cars. The Piper company was founded by George Henrotte in 1966. The British company was originally based in Hayes. Piper Cars made a series of moves from Kent, to Wokingham, Berkshire, and eventually in 1973 to South Willingham, Lincolnshire. After the death of owner Brian Sherwood in 1969, employees Bill Atkinson and Tony Waller ownership of the company and renamed it Embrook Engineering. Production of the Piper Car ceased around the mid-1970s.

Pontiac Car History
In 1893, Edward M. Murphy founded the Pontiac Buggy Company in Pontiac, Michigan to produce horse drawn carriages. In 1906, the Pontiac name was first used by the Pontiac Spring & Wagon Works. In 1908, they merged with the Oakland Motor Company, to form the Oakland Motor Car Company located in Pontiac, Michigan. In 1909, General Motors purchased Oakland. In 1926, the first Pontiac debuted at the New York Auto Show. During the early years, Pontiac was marketed as a quiet and reliable car. But with the introfuction of the 1957 model, the Bonneville, marketing shifted to emphasize Pontiac performance. In 1964, the Pontiac GTO was introduced. It gained both John DeLorean and Pontiac much fame. In 1967, the Firebird was introduced. Until 1956, a Native American Headdress was used as the Pontiac logo. Currently, the Pontiac logo is a Native American arrowhead.

Porsche Car History
Porsche was founded by Ferdinand Porsche in 1931. The first Porsche was produced in 1938. In 1948, the second Porsche was produced in Austraia, the Porsche 356 sports car. In 1963 the famous Porsche 911 was released. In 1969, Porsche worked with Volkswagen to produce the VW-Porsche 914 and 914-6.

Rambler Car History
The origins of the Rambler Car can be traced back to 1897, when Thomas B. Jeffery built his first prototype automobile. Jeffery was involved in the bicycle business. Alomg with R. Philip Gormully, they produced the Rambler bicycle from 1879. He founded the Thomas B. Jeffery Company and bought the old Sterling Bicycle Co. factory in Kenosha, Wisconsin, where he started to produce Rambler cars. In 1902, he produced 1,500 cars making him the second largest auto manufacturer in the United States. Rambler introduced innovations such as the steering wheel and spare tires. Thomas B. Jeffery died in 1910. His son Charles, replaced the branding from Rambler to Jeffery to honor his father. The family eventually sold the business to Charles Nash. The company was renamed, Nash Motors. Nash continued with success the production of the Rambler Car. In 1954, Nash merged with Kelvinator and the Hudson Motor Car Company. The entire Rambler line received the Motor Trend Car of the Year award in 1963. But after a change of direction, the Rambler name was slowly phased out, and the final Rambler branded car in the United States was in 1969. The Rambler brand continued overseas for several more years.

Riley Car History
In 1890, William Riley Jr. purchased the Bonnick Cycle Company of Coventry, and renamed it the Riley Cycle Company. They started to move into cars and in 1900 sold a single three-wheeled automobile. In 1903, his son, Percy Riley, started the the Riley Engine Company in Coventry and produced their first four-wheeled car in 1905. By 1912, Riley Cycle Company changed its name to Riley (Coventry) Limited and became a wheel supplier for the car industry. By 1913, the Riley Motor Manufacturing Company was founded and their first car was shown at the London Motor Show. During the 1920s and 1930s the Riley companies continued to grow at a rapid pace. But after financial problems, the Nuffield Organisation took control in 1938. After more changes in ownership, Riley Car production ceased in the 1960s.

Rochdale Car History
The Rochdale Car company was founded by Frank Butterworth and Harry Smith in 1948, in Hudson Street, Rochdale. Originally they started out as general motor repairs. But they 1957 to 1973 they moved into car production. The Rochdale Olympic car was a glass fibre monocoque British sports car. In 1961, a fire detroyed the Hudson Street premises and Rochdale moved a short distance to Littledale Mill. The company continued in business for a number of years mainly working in the heating and ventilation industry.

Rodley Car History
The Rodley Car was a British microcar built from 1954 to 1956. It was built by the Rodley Automobile Company in Leeds, United Kingdom. A total of 65 of the Rodley Car were built. At the time, the Rodley was the cheapest four wheel car on the British market. But it had a poor reputation and had major overheating problems. Although the car was advertised as a four seater and fitted with four seats, those in the back were very small and cramped. The roof was fabric and could be rolled forwards to give an opening roof.

Rolls-Royce
Founded in 1904 by Frederick Henry Royce and Charles Stewart Rolls. In 1906, Rolls-Royce Limited company was founded. The basis of the company was to build quality cars without worrying about the ginal price. Moved from Derby to the Crewe factory in 1938. In 1998, Volkswagen took control of Rolls-Royce Motors. But BMW took control of Rolls-Royce Motor Cars, giving it control of the Rolls-Royce name.

Russian Car History
The Volga Car of Russia was considered the ultimate status symbol. The volga which was introduced in 1956, was often used by party officials and security services. The Volga has a strong reputation as being a high quality car with a long life span. A Volga car with a V8-engine was built for the KGB. Kamaz is a Russian truck manufacture. The first Kamaz was produced in 1976, and these days is a major exporter of trucks around the world. Kamaz vehicles have won the truck category of the Dakar Rally several times. KAvZ is a bus builder that started in 1950. PAZ is a manufacturer of buses in Russia that started in 1952. SeAZ was founded in 1939, in Moscow. During 1939 to 1995 the company mainly produced various microcars. ZIL was founded in 1916. But it was not until 1924 that the first vehicle was produced. Zil is a producer of armored cars. Zil also produces buseshand-built limousines, high-end luxury sedans, and armored fighting vehicles.

Rytecraft Car History
The British Rytecraft Scootacar was a microcar built by the British Motorboat Manufacturing Company of Kings Cross, London. The Rytecraft in fact originated as a fair ground Dodgem. It was designed by Jack Shillan. Aboyt 1,000 of the Rytecraft microcars were produced between 1934 and 1940. The cost for the first model was £70 and £80 for the second model. A few Rytecraft were assembled after World War 2 from the remaining pieces.

Saab Car History
Svenska Aeroplan Aktiebolaget, (SAAB) is founded in 1937 in Trolhattan, Sweden. It starts out as a manufacturer of aircraft. Saab first starting producing cars in 1949. Skills developed in aircraft production are used in their cars. Easly model Saab cars had a lower coefficient drag than many of todays cars. In 1969, Saab AB and Scania-Vabis AB merge under the name Saab Scania AB. In 1990, General Motors bought %50 of Saab Automobile, and eventually used an option to acquire the entire company.

Singer Car History
The Singer Car company was founded in Coventry, England, in 1905. Singer had previously been a bicycle maker. In 1905 Singer produced their first four wheel car. More models followed but car production stopped at the beginning of World War One. After the war production onve again started. After financial problems Singer was taken over by the Rootes Group in 1956. The Singer name disappeared after the Rootes Group was taken over by Chrysler.

United States Car History
From its humble beginnings as a car manufacture a little over 100 years ago, the United Sates has become the worlds leading producer of cars. However, at one stage there was more then 1,800 automobile manufacturers in the United States, yet these days the industry is dominated by just a few major companies. The Able was produced from 1917 to 1919, in Mount Vernon, New York. In 1920, the name was changed to the Vernon. The Ace was produced in Michigan, between 1920 and 1922. In 1922, the American Motor Truck Co. took control. AC Propulsion was founded in 1992, by Alan Cocconi. They produce the electric sports car, the AC Propulsion tzero. Adams-Farwell was founded by Herbert and Eugene Adams and Fay Oliver Farwell in Iowa. They built five prototypes before moving to production. They built 52 cars from 1905 to 1913. The Adelphia was a prototype car built in 1920, but never went into production. The Adria was an assembled car of which several prototypes were built from 1921 to 1922. The Aerocar was a luxury car produced in Detroit, Michigan, from 1905 to 1908. The factory was sold to Hudson. The Aland was produced in Detroit, Michigan, between 1916 and 1917. The Albany Runabout was produced from 1907 to 1908, in Albany, Indiana. The Alpena car was produced between 1910 and 1914. The Alsace car was produced for the purpose of export by Piedmont between 1920 and 1921. The Allen Kingston was produced from 1907 to 1909. The car was produced by the New York Car & Truck Company for Walter C. Allen of New York City. The Allstate Car was built by Kaiser-Frazer. The car was sold through the Allstate auto accessory chain of Sears Roebuck. The Alter Motor Company was founded in 1914, in Plymouth, Michigan. From 1914 to 1916, they produced more then 1,000 cars. The Amco was produced by the American Motors Inc. of New York City from 1919 to 1920. The Ames was produced in Kentucky from 1910 to 1915. The Anahuac was in Indianapolis by the Frontenac Motor Corp. in 1922. A total of four cars were made. The Anchor Buggy was produced in Cincinnati between 1910 and 1911. The Anderson was produced from 1916 to 1925. The Ansted was produced from 1926 to 1927. The Apperson was produced in Kokomo, Indiana, from 1902 to 1926. The Ardsley was designed by W. S. Howard. It was produced from 1905 to 1906. 24 of the Argonne were produced from 1919 to 1920. The Argo was produced in Jackson, Michigan from 1915 to 1916. The Argonne was produced from 1919 to 1920. A total of 24 were produced. The Atlas was produced in Springfield, Massachusetts from 1907 to 1913. The Aultman was a light steam carriage built in 1901, in Canton, Ohio. The Aurora was produced by Alfred A. Juliano, from 1957 to 1958. Only one Aurora was built, and it cost $30,000 to produce. The car broke down 15 times on the way to its public unveiling. The Autocar Company was founded in 1899. It was previously the Pittsburgh Motor Vehicle Company. The first car was produced in 1900. The last cars were produced in 1912. The company did continue as a truck manufacture.

Stirling Car History
The Sterling Car Was produced in the UK by the Rover company and sold in the American market from 1987 to 1991. marketed in the USA by ARCONA, Austin Rover Cars Of North America under the name Sterling Motor Cars, a division of the Rover car company of the UK. Stirling continued to sell in Europe till 1998. The only Sterling model that was sold was the 800 series, which was a rebadged Rover 800-series but with different specifications tailored for the American market. US sales hit a high of nearly 15,000 cars in 1988. After the withdrawal from the US Market, the Rover 800 remained popular in Europe, especially following the major R17 facelift and was kept in production until 1998 when it was replaced by the Rover 75.

Subaru Car History
The history of the Subaru Car can be traced to 1917, when it started as "The Aircraft Research Laboratory". In 1931, the company became "Nakajima Aircraft Co., Ltd". After World War Two, it became "Fuji Sangyo Co, Ltd". More changes took place till eventually it became known as "Fuji Heavy Industries". Subaru is the automobile division. The word "Subaru" comes from the Japanese word for "unite". The Subaru logo is the star cluster Pleiades. The first car produced was the Subaru 360 Minicar in 1958. In 1965, Subaru was the first Japanese auto maker to offer front-wheel drive passenger cars in Japan. In 1972, Subaru introduced the first four-wheel drive passenger cars in the world. The first Subaru cars arrived in the United States in 1968.

Car History of Sweden
Allvelo was founded by Fritiof KarlstrŲm in Landskrona, Sweden Between 1903 to 1907, Allvelo produced and sold CKD cars and trucks under their own name. AB Motorfabriken i GŲteborg (AMG) was founded in Gothenburg, in 1897. They produced their first car in 1903. Only ten cars in total were produced. AB NykŲpings Automobilfabrik (ANA) was founded in 1937 in Sweden. Mostly they assembled trucks for other companies. In 1960 they were bought by SAAB. Koenigsegg Automotive AB was founded in OlofstrŲm, in 1994 by Christian von Koenigsegg. A production prototype was introduced at the 2000 Paris Motor Show. In 2002, the first customer took delivery of a red CC 8S. LMV was based in LidkŲping, Sweden. In 1923 they produced a prototype car designed by Ňke W Eklund. Production never started due to a change in ownership. Reva sports cars were produced by Dan Werbin and Holger BrŚnby. The first car was introduced in 1964. The last car was produced in 1968. Svenska Automobilfabriken (SAF) was founded in 1919 in Bollnšs. They assembled cars based on Pullman Motor Co chassises. A total of 28 SAF cars were built. Vabis was founded in 1891, to produce railway cars. In 1897 they designed an automobile. In 1902, they introduced their first truck. In 1911, Vabis merged with Maskinfabriks AB Scania to create AB Scania-Vabis.

Switzerland Car History
The first Ajax car was built in 1906 by Dr. G. Aigner. In 1907, four new models were introduced. Two Ajax cars competed in the Targa Florio race in 1907. The Albar car was built from 1978 in Buochs by Alois Barmettler. Monteverdi was a luxury car founded in Binningen in 1967, by Peter Monteverdi. In 1982, Monteverdi ceased production. In 1990, Monteverdi made a brief comeback after founding the Monteverdi-Onyx-Team. Rinspeed was founded by Frank Rinderknecht in 1979. Rinspeed specialise in restoring classic cars, and modifying modern cars. Sbarro was founded by Franco Sbarro in 1971, and specializes in high performance replica and sports cars. Turicum produced cars between 1904 and 1914 in ZŁrich, and then later in Uster.

Tiny Car History
The Tiny Cyclecar was manufactured by Nanson, Barker & Co at Esholt, Yorkshire, United Kingdom. The first car, the 8hp, produced in 1912 was powered by an air cooled JAP V-twin engine, 3 speed gearbox and chain drive. In 1912, the first Tiny car was produced and displayed at the London Motor Show. It had an asking price of about £100. The final Tiny Cyclecar cost £157 and was produced in 1914. It is uncertain how many Tinys were made but output was small. The company however went on to produce cars under the Airedale brand.

Tornado Car History
Founded by Bill Woodhouse in Hertfordshire, England in 1957. The first model was the Typhoon Sports and about 400 of these were produced. Around 1961 the Tempest model was introduced with about 15 being produced. A Tornado Thunderbolt was also produced using a TR3 engine and a stronger chassis and suspension. Only 1 was built. In 1962, the Talisman 2+2 coupe was introduced with a total of 196 being made before the company into liquidation.

Toyota Car History
The headquarters of Toyota is located in Aichi, Japan. The origins of Toyota Motor Corporation stated in September 1933. Toyoda Automatic Loom had created a new division devoted to the production of automobiles. In 1936, production of the Model AA passenger car started. In 1937, Toyota Motor Co. was established as an independent company. In 1950, Toyota experienced its one and only strike. In 1959, Production of vehicles outside Japan started in Brazil.

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