BUSINESS LEADERS

Mary Kay Ash
Born 1915, in Hot Wells, Texas. In her early years, Mary went door to door selling a child psychology book. With only $5,000, Mary founded "Mary Kay Cosmetics" in Dallas. The Mary Kay products were sold door to door. These days the company employs over 300,000 people and is a great success. Mary wrote a number of books including "You Can Have It All" and "Mary Kay on People Management". Mary Kay Ash died in 2001.

Clarence Birdseye
Born in 1886, in Brooklyn. Birdseye attended Amherst College. After being part of a fur-trading expedition he gained an insight in frozen food. Birdseye started experimenting with the process of frozen food and eventually took out a number of patents. Birdseye was one of the founders of the General Foods Company. Birdseye is also credited with the infrared heat lamp. Clarence Birdseye died in 1956.

William Boeing
Born in 1881 in Detroit, Michigan. In 1904, William graduated from Yale University. For a while, Boeing worked in the lumber industry. It was during flying lessons that Boeing realized the future of aviation transport. Boeing formed the Pacific Aero Products Company in 1916, which later changed its name to the Boeing Airplane Company. In 1934, Boeing was awarded the "Guggenheim Medal". William Boeing died September 28, 1956.

Clyde Cessna
Born on December 5, 1879, in Hawthorne, Iowa. Clyde had worked for a short period at the Queen Aero plane Company. Cessna built his first plane in 1911. It was basically a wood and fabric made plane. In 1927, Cessna founded the Cessna Aircraft. Cessna eventually retired in 1934. Clyde Cessna died in November 1954.

Walter Chrysler
Born in 1875 in Wamego, Kansas. Chrysler worked for the American Locomotive Company, then later in 1911, for the Buick Motor Company. Chrysler took a controlling interest in the Maxwell Motor Company and eventually absorbed it into Chrysler Corporation, The first Chrysler car was released in 1924. At one stage, Walter financed the construction of the worlds tallest skyscraper. Walter Chrysler died in 1940.

Liz Claiborne
Born March 31, 1929 in Brussels, Belgium. Liz studied art in Europe in Belgium and France. Claiborne spent many years working as a fashion designer in New York. Finally in 1976 she started her own company. The company went on to become an international success. Claiborne retired in 1989 from active management.

William Colgate
Born in 1783, in Kent, England. In 1798, his family migrated to the United States. William learned candle making and in 1806, he opened a tallow factory in New York. He later moved the factory to Jersey City. Married Mary Gilbert in 1811. By 1850, Colgate had started producing fancy soaps and toilet preparations. William Colgate died in New York in 1857. Colgate was a devout baptist.

Samuel Firestone
Born December 20, 1868 in Ohio. Coming from a wealthy family, Firestone started his own business in the 1890`s, making rubber tires. By 1900, Samuel had created the "Firestone Tire & Rubber Company. Firestone formed a partnership with Henry Ford to manufacture rubber tires for automobiles. Samuel Firestone died in 1938. The main library of Princeton University is named Firestone Library in his honor. It is among the largest university libraries in the world. In 1973, Firestone was posthumously inducted into the Automotive Hall of Fame. Firestone High School in Akron, Ohio is named in his honor. He also has a memorial there.

George Gallup
Born in November 18, 1901, in Jefferson, Iowa. He attended the State University of Iowa. Gallup taught journalism at Drake University and later at Northwestern University. In 1935, Gallup founded the American Institute of Public Opinion. George Gallup died in 1984. After his death, The Gallup Organization was sold.

Charles Goodyear
Born December 29, 1800, in New Haven,. Goodyear spent most of his life in poverty. Charles was an inventor who discovered a process for vulcanizing rubber and in 1844, Goodyear received a patent for vulcanization. Unfortunately, Goodyear sold the patent for a small sum. Charles Goodyear died July 1, 1860. Although the Goodyear company was named in his honor, he was in no way connected.

Hugh Hefner
Born in 1926, in Chicago. As a child, Hefner was raised in a strict Methodist upbringing. After high school, Hugh joined the army. After, Hefner attended the Chicago Art Institute. After serving in the subscription department for Esquire, he left in January 1952 after being denied a $5 raise. He worked at Children's Activities, then took his biggest gamble in 1953 by lending his furniture for $600 and raising $8,000 from 45 investors, including $1,000 from his mother to launch Playboy. Hefner launched "Playboy" in 1953. The first issue featured "Marilyn Monroe". The magazine became an international success and leader in its field.

Helena Rubinstein
Born in 1870 in Cracow, Poland. Rubinstein later migrated to Australia. In 1902, Helena opened a beauty salon in Melbourne, Australia. Rubinstein sold her own facial cream, "Creme Valaze". Soon, Helena opened her Salons worldwide. Helena married Edward Titus in 1908. In 1959, Rubenstein represented the U.S. cosmetics industry at the American National Exhibition in Moscow. Rubinstein died in 1965 in New York.

Milton Hershey
Born September 13, 1857, in Pennsylvania. Hershey had a limited education, and he only completed the fourth grade. Started out as an apprentice, but Milton soon left to start his own business, opening his own shop in Philadelphia. In 1886, Hershey opened the "Lancaster Caramel Company" which he later sold. In 1903, Hershey built a chocolate factory. In 1909, Milton built a trade school for orphan boys. Milton Hershey died October 13, 1945. Hershey left his money to charity.

Conrad Hilton
Born December 25, 1887 , in San Antonio, New Mexico. As a youngster Conrad worked in his Fathers store. In 1919, Conrad purchased his first hotel. Then in 1925, the first "Hilton Hotel" was in Dallas, Texas. In 1957, Conrad realized his autobiography, "Be My Guest". Conrad Hilton died in 1979. Most of his estate was left to the "Conrad N. Hilton Foundation", a philanthropic organization.

William Hoover
Born in 1849, in Ohio. Hoover got involved in the cleaning business after he buying the patent for an electric cleaning machine. In 1908, Hoover formed the Electric Suction Sweeper Company. In 1910, he renamed the Company to Hoover. William Hoover died in 1932.

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Lee Iacocca
Born on 15 October, 1924, in Allentown, Pennsylvania. Iacocca studied for a degree in industrial engineering from Lehigh University. Iacocca started as a student engineer in 1946, for Ford. In 1956, Iacocca married Mary McCleary. After success in turning Ford`s Philadelphia branch, Iacocca was promoted to the district manager of Washington, D.C. However, in 1978, Iacocca left Ford and went on to became president, then chairman of Chrysler Corporation. He is the author or co-author of several books, including Iacocca: An Autobiography (with William Novak), and Where have all the Leaders Gone?.

John Kellogg
Born in 1852, in Tyrone, New York. John attended Battle Creek public school, then Michigan State Normal School. Kellogg graduated with a medical degree from the New York University Medical College at Bellevue Hospital. John and his brother started the Sanitas Food Company. One such product they sold was corn flake breakfast. The brothers eventually went their own way. John started the Battle Creek Food Company. Kellogg wrote almost 50 books. John Kellogg died in 1943.

Raymond Kroc
Born October 5, 1902, in Chicago. Kroc, who never finished school, was a volunteer ambulance driver during World War I. Kroc was selling Mult-A-Mixer machines when he came across a restaurant owned by the McDonald brothers. After convincing the brothers to let him franchise their restaurant, Kroc turned the business into a national success and eventually bought out the brothers in 1961. Kroc wrote his autobiography, "Grinding It Out", in 1977. Raymond Kroc died in 1984.

Sir Thomas Lipton
Born 10, 1850, in Glasgow. Lipton started out in business with a Grocery shop which he eventually expanded into a chain of shops. In 1889, Thomas bought a number of plantations in Ceylon (Sri Lanka). In 1898, Lipton was Knighted. Sir Thomas Lipton died in London in 1931.

Forrest Mars
Born in March 21, 1904. As an adult, Mars moved to live in Britain and became involved in the manufacture of pet foods. Forrest eventually returned to the United States where he took control of "Uncle Bens" rice concern. Mars went on to develop the now famous "M&M's", chocolate candy. He was married to Audrey Mars, who died in 1989, and he had three children - Forrest Jr., John, and Jacqueline. Forrest Mars died at the age of 95 years old.

Aristotle Onassis
Born in early 1900, in Smyrna, Ottoman Empire which is now Izmir, Turkey. The Onassis family eventually migrated to Greece. Aristotle went on to become an international business icon who owned commercial ships, tankers, and founded Olympic Airways. In 1946, Onassis married Athina Mary Livanos, but they later divorced. In 1968, Aristotle married Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy. Aristotle Onassis died in 1975 in France.

Redfield Proctor
Born in 1831 in Proctorsville, Vermont,. Proctor studied law at Dartmouth College. Later, Redfield practiced in Boston. During the civil war, Proctor served in the Union army but contracted tuberculosis and was sent home. He went on to make the Vermont Marble Company at Sutherland Falls a national success. Proctor was also elected to the U.S. Senate. Redfield Proctor died March 4, 1908.

Eliphalet Remington
Born on October 28, 1793, in Suffield. He was a blacksmith, and at 23, he hand-made a revolutionary sporting rifle using a firing mechanism bought from a dealer, producing the barrel himself. The gun received such an enthusiastic response that Remington decided to manufacture it in quantity, and formed the firm of E. Remington and Sons, which he headed until his death in 1861. Originally started off with his Father when they founded a smithy. But the business changed direction to manufacturing firearms when Remington made a rifle. Eliphalet established a rifle factory in New York. Eliphalet Remington died August 12, 1861.

Paul Julius von Reuter
Birth name Israel Beer Josaphat was born in 1816 in Kassel, Germany. In 1845, Reuter made the move to London. Reuter founded "Reuters" in the London Stock Exchange in 1851. It went on to become an international business. Named a Baron in 1871. Baron Paul Julius von Reuter died February 25, 1899, in France. He died in Villa Reuter, Nice, France, and was taken back to London to be buried in the family vault at West Norwood Cemetery.

Nathan Rothschild
Born September 16, 1777, in Frankfurt, Germany. Rothschild moved to England in 1797. Nathan established a textile trading business in in Manchester. On June 12, 1804, Rothschild became a British subject. In 1805, Rothschild established a business house in London. In 1806, Nathan married Hanna Barent Cohen. Nathan Rothschild died in 1836.

Charles Schwab
Born in 1862 in Williamsburg. Schwab was president of "Carnegie Steel Company", First President of "U.S. Steel Corp", and turned Bethlehem Steel Company into the biggest independent steel producer. He became an international celebrity when he "broke the bank" at Monte Carlo and traveled in a US$100,000 private rail car named "Loretto". Sadly, during the stock market crash of 1929, Schwab was sent almost broke. Charles Schwab died in 1939 in New York City.

Richard Sears
Born December 7, 1863, in Stewartville, Minnesota. At 17, Richard had worked in the Railway. Sears good fortune started when a retailer refused shipment of pocket watches. Richard did a deal to sell the watches and soon had amassed a profit of $5000, an enormous amount of money at the time. In 1886, Richard founded the R. W. Sears Watch Company. Over the years Sears focused his efforts on selling to rural communities through brochures of which he was a genius at writing promotional copy. Richard Sears died in 1913.

Leland Stanford
Born in 1824, at Watervliet, N.Y. Most renowned for the fact that in 1891, Leland his wife founded "Leland Stanford Junior University", (now Stanford University). During his early years he mined for gold, worked in a general store for miners, and even served as a Justice of the Peace. Stanford was one of the founders of the Central Pacific Railroad. Later, Stanford was President of the Southern Pacific Railroad. From 1861 to 1863, Stanford served as Governor of California. Leland Stanford died June 21, 1893.

Francis Stanley
Born in 1849, in Kingfield, Maine. In 1883, Francis invented a photographic dry-plate process. Francis and his brother then formed the "Stanley Dry Plate Company", which was later sold to "Eastman Kodak". In 1896, the brothers also invented the "Stanley Steamer". Francis Stanley died in 1918.

Louis Charles Tiffany
Born in 1812, in Killingly, Connecticut. Tiffany started out in partnership with John B. Young. They started out with a fancy goods store which expanded and in 1841 became "Tiffany, Young, & Ellis". Tiffany is created with creating the first retail catalog in the United States. He is also credited with introducing the English standard of sterling silver, which others followed. Louis Tiffany died in 1902, in New York.

Donald Trump
Born June 14, 1946. in New York City. Trump attended the New York Military Academy, Fordham University, then the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania. Donald graduated with a Bachelors Degree in Economics. Trump eventually had a hand in everything from real estate, transportation, to casinos. He was a high profile businessman who became known the world over. In 2007, Trump received an honor for his contribution of The Apprentice to television by receiving a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

Marie Tussaud
Born in 1760 in Strasbourg, France. Tussaud learnt the art of wax modeling from her uncle, "Philippe Curtius". She later inherited the wax sculptors of Curtius. In 1778, Tussard created her first work, that of "Jean-Jacques Rousseau"> Marie migrated to England in 1802. In 1835, Tussaud opened her wax museum (now known as Madame Tussauds) in London. Marie Tussaud died in 1850.

Cornelius Vanderbilt
Born in 1794, in Port Richmond, New York. During his youth, Cornelius worked in New York City on the Ferries. He soon had his own business, that of ferrying passengers and freight. With the California gold rush, Vanderbilt saw a great opportunity to expand, and started running a steamship line from New York to California via Nicaragua. Vanderbilt invested in the railroad business, buying into the Hudson River Railroad, the New York & Harlem, the New York Central. Cornelius Vanderbilt died in 1877.

Sam Walton
Born in 1918, in Kingfisher, Oklahoma. Walton graduated from the University of Missouri, Columbia, where Sam majored in Economics. After Sam finished his study, he worked for awhile as a management trainee at JC Penney. In 1943, Walton married Helen Robson. In 1945, Walton purchased a Butler Bros franchise store in Arkansas. By 1962, Walton had opened his Wal-Mart store. Wal-Mart was popular, it grew to the stage where Sam took it to a public company in 1970. Wal-Mart went on to become the countries biggest retailer. Awarded the Medal of Freedom Sam Walton died in 1992.

George Westinghouse
Born in 1846, in Central Bridge, N.Y. He studied engineering at Union College. Westinghouse founded the "Westinghouse Air Brake Company" in 1869. Later, he set up the the Westinghouse Electric Company in 1886. During his life, some 400 patents were credited Westinghouse. George Westinghouse died in 1914.

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