The British Prime Minister resides at number 10 Downing Street, London.
The Prime Minister of the day is the Head of Government leader of his party in the House of Commons.
He is also the elected MP for his seat in parliament.
Henry Addington was born May 30, 1757 in London. He was educated at Winchester and Brasenose College, Oxford. He was elected to the House of Commons in 1784 as Member of Parliament (MP) for Devizes, and became Speaker of the House of Commons in 1789. In March, 1801, Pitt resigned from office after his failure to achieve Catholic emancipation, and Addington was chosen to succeed him as Prime Minister. Addington served as Prime Minister from 1801-1804. He was later elevated to the House of Lords as Viscount Sidmouth. Henry Addington died February 15, 1844. Addington donated to the town of Reading the four acres (16,000 mē) of land that is today the Royal Berkshire Hospital, and his name is commemorated in the town's Sidmouth Street and Addington Road.
Herbert Henry Asquith was born on September 12, 1852, in Morley, Yorkshire. Educated at City of London School and Balliol College Oxford. He entered Parliament on July 9, 1886. Before his term as Prime Minister he served as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1905 to 1908 and as Home Secretary from 1892 to 1895. Asquith served as Prime Minister from 1908-1916. On 6 November 1925 he was made a Freeman of Huddersfield. Herbert Henry Asquith died February 15, 1928. During his lifetime he was known as H. H. Asquith before his accession to the peerage and as Lord Oxford afterwards.
Clement Richard Attlee was born on January 3, 1883, in London. He was educated at Haileybury and University College, Oxford. In 1922, Clement first entered Parliament. Attlee served as Prime Minister from 1945-1951. It was Attlee's government that decided Britain should have an independent atomic weapons programme, and work began on it in 1947. His administration presided over the successful transition from a wartime economy to peacetime, tackling problems of demobilisation, shortages of foreign currency, and adverse deficits in trade balances and government expenditure. Another change he brought about in domestic politics was the establishment of the National Health Service and post-war Welfare State. Attlee led the party in opposition until December 1955, when he retired from the Commons and was elevated to the peerage to take his seat in the House of Lords as Earl Attlee and Viscount Prestwood on 16 December 1955. He attended Churchill's funeral in January 1965 - elderly and frail by then, he had to remain seated in the freezing cold as the coffin was carried, having tired himself out by standing at the rehearsal the previous day. He lived to see his old constituency of Walthamstow West fall to the Conservatives in a by-election in September 1967. Clement Attlee died of pneumonia on 8 October 1967.
Former British Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin was born on August 3, 1867, in Bewdley, Worcestershire. Baldwin was educated at Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge. As a young man he served very briefly as a Second Lieutenant in the Artillery Volunteers. In the 1906 general election he contested Kidderminster but lost amidst the Conservative landslide defeat after the party split on the issue of free trade. In 1908 he succeeded his father as Member of Parliament (MP) for Bewdley. During the First World War he became Parliamentary Private Secretary to Conservative leader Andrew Bonar Law and in 1917 he was appointed to the junior ministerial post of Financial Secretary to the Treasury where he sought to encourage voluntary donations by the rich in order the repay the United Kingdom's war debt, notably writing to The Times under the pseudonym 'FST'. He personally donated one fifth of his quite small fortune. He served jointly with Sir Hardman Lever, who had been appointed in 1916, but after 1919 Baldwin carried out the duties largely alone. He was appointed to the Privy Council in the 1920 Birthday Honours. In 1921 he was promoted to the Cabinet as President of the Board of Trade. Baldwin served as British Prime Minister from 1923-1929 and again 1935-1937. Stanley Baldwin died on December 14, 1947.
Arthur James Balfour was born July 25, 1848, in East Lothian, Scotland. Arthur was educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge. Became the Conservative MP for Hertford in 1874. Arthur James Balfour died March 19, 1930, at Surrey. Balfour was made LL.D. of the University of Edinburgh in 1881; of the University of St Andrews in 1885; of Cambridge University in 1888; of Dublin and Glasgow Universities in 1891; Lord Rector of St Andrews University in 1886; of Glasgow University in 1890; Chancellor of Edinburgh University in 1891; member of the senate London University in 1888; and DCL of Oxford University in 1891. He was president of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in 1904, and became a fellow of the Royal Society in 1888. He was known from early life as a cultured musician, and became an enthusiastic golf player, having been captain of the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews in 1894-1895. He was president of the Aristotelian Society from 1914 to 1915. Balfour was also a member of the Society for Psychical Research, a society dedicated to studying psychic and paranormal phenomena, and its president from 1892-1894.
Henry Campbell-Bannerman was born on September 7, 1836, in Glasgow, Scotland. Campbell-Bannerman was born at Kelvinside House in Glasgow, Scotland, in 1836 as Henry Campbell. The surname Bannerman was added to his surname in 1871 as required by his maternal uncle's will. It was a condition of his inheritance of his uncle's Kent estate, Hunton Court. He was educated at Glasgow High School, Glasgow University and Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1868, he entered Parliament as a Liberal. Campbell-Bannerman served as Prime Minister from 1905-1908. Henry Campbell-Bannerman died on April 22, 1908. His last words were "This is not the end of me." Campbell-Bannerman was buried in the churchyard of Meigle Parish Church, Perthshire, near his home, Belmont Castle. A relatively modest stone plaque set in the exterior wall of the church serves as a memorial. There is a blue plaque outside Campbell-Bannerman's house at 6 Grosvenor Place, London SW1. His bronze bust, sculpted by Paul Raphael Montford is in Westminster Abbey.
Benjamin Disraeli was born December 21, 1804, in London. Educated at Higham Hall School in Walthamstow. He served as Prime Minister in 1868 and again in 1874-1880. Disraeli was elevated to the House of Lords in 1876 when Queen Victoria (who liked Disraeli both personally and politically) made him Earl of Beaconsfield and Viscount Hughenden. Benjamin Disraeli died April 19, 1881, in London. He was regarded as the founder of the Conservative party in Britain. Disraeli's most lasting achievement was the creation of the modern Conservative Party after the Corn Laws schism of 1846. Before and during his political career, Disraeli was well-known as a literary and social figure, although his novels are not generally regarded as a part of the Victorian literary canon. He mainly wrote romances, of which Sybil and Vivian Grey are perhaps the best-known today.
Andrew Bonar Law was born on September 16, 1858, in New Brunswick, Canada. He was elected to Parliament for Glasgow Blackfriars and Hutchesontown as a Conservative in 1900. He associated himself with the Protectionist wing of the party led by Joseph Chamberlain, and after Chamberlain withdrew from politics in 1906, Law came to lead that wing of the party along with Chamberlain's son, Austen. He had a reputation for honesty and fearlessness, and was well regarded as an effective speaker. These qualities helped him to be appointed as Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Trade in 1902. He lost his seat to future Labour leader George Nicoll Barnes in the anti-Conservative landslide 1906 General Election, but he returned to represent Dulwich at a by-election later that year. Though hit hard by the death of his wife, he continued his political career; after leaving the House of Commons at the December 1910 election, he returned as MP for Bootle at a by-election in 1911. Bonar served as Prime Minister from 1922-1923. Law died in London on October 30, 1923. He is also the only British Prime Minister to have been born outside the British Isles. A tiny hamlet (unincorporated village) named Bonarlaw is named after the British Prime Minister. It was formerly known as "Big Springs" and then "Bellview" and is located in the municipality of Stirling-Rawdon, Ontario, Canada.
Leonard James Callaghan was born on March 27, 1912, in Portsmouth, Hampshire. Callaghan was educated at a Portsmouth state school. Later, James worked for the Inland Revenue. During World War 2, Callaghan served in the Royal Navy Patrol Service. In 1945, James won a seat in the general election. He went on to have a very successful political career becoming Prime Minister at age 64 years. Callaghan is the only person to have served in all four of the Great Offices of State: Prime Minister, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Home Secretary and Foreign Secretary. James Callaghan died on March 26, 2005.
George Canning was born April 11, 1770 in London. He was educated at Eton and Christ Church College, Oxford. While at school, Canning gained renown for his skill in writing and debate. He formed friendships with Lord Liverpool, Granville Leveson-Gower, and John Hookham Frere. Canning began practising Law after receiving his BA from Oxford in the summer of 1791. In 1793, thanks to the help of Pitt, Canning became a Member of Parliament for Newtown on the Isle of Wight, a rotten borough. In 1796, he changed seats to a different rotten borough, Wendover in Buckinghamshire. Canning served as foreign secretary from 1807-1809 and 1822-1827. He served as Prime Minister in 1827. George Canning died suddenly in office on August 8, 1827.
William Cavendish was born in 1720 and was thought to have been privately educated by a tutor. William Cavendish was a reluctant Prime Minister and only took on the job at the request of George II. He resigned after only seven months. William Cavendish died on 2 October, 1764, in Germany.
Robert Gascoyne-Cecil was born on February 3, 1830, in Hertfordshire. He was educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford. In 1853, He became the MP for Stamford. When his father died in 1868, he inherited the Marquessate of Salisbury and as such, become a Member of the House of Lords. Served as Prime Minister from 1885-1892 and 1895-1902. Salisbury's expertise was in foreign affairs. For most of his time as Prime Minister he served not as First Lord of the Treasury, the traditional position held by the Prime Minister, but as Foreign Secretary. Robert Gascoyne-Cecil died on August 22, 1903. Salisbury was offered a dukedom by Queen Victoria in 1886 and 1892, but declined both offers, citing the prohibitive cost of the lifestyle dukes were expected to maintain.
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Arthur Neville Chamberlain was born on March 18, 1869, in Birmingham. He studied at Rugby School and Mason College (later University of Birmingham). Chamberlain followed his father and older half-brother in becoming a Member of Parliament in the 1918 general election at age 49. He declined a junior ministerial position, remaining a backbencher until he was appointed Postmaster General after the 1922 general election. He was rapidly promoted in 1923 to Minister of Health and then Chancellor of the Exchequer but presented no budget before the government fell in 1924. He returned as Minister of Health, introducing a range of reform measures from 1924 to 1929. He was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer in the coalition National Government in 1931 and spent six years reducing the war debt and the tax burden. When Stanley Baldwin retired after the abdication of Edward VIII and the coronation of George VI, Chamberlain took his place as Prime Minister in 1937. Chamberlain served as Prime Minister from 1937-1940. Chamberlain died on November 9, 1940, in Highfield Park, Hampshire.
Robert Anthony Eden was born on June 12, 1897, in Bishop Auckland, Durham. He attended Eton and Christ Church, Oxford. During the First World War, Eden serving with the King's Royal Rifle Corps reached the rank of captain, received a Military Cross, and at the age of twenty-one became the youngest brigade-major in the British Army. After fighting a hopeless seat in the November 1922 General Election, Captain Eden, as he was still known, was elected Member of Parliament for Warwick and Leamington in the December 1923 General Election, as a Conservative. In that year also he married Beatrice Beckett. They had three sons, one of whom died shortly after birth, but the marriage was not a success and broke up under the strain of Eden's political career. During the 1924-9 Conservative Government Eden was first Parliamentary Private Secretary to the Home Secretary, Sir William Joynson Hicks, and then in 1926 to the Foreign Secretary Sir Austen Chamberlain. In 1931 he held his first ministerial office as Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs. In 1934 he was appointed Lord Privy Seal and Minister for the League of Nations in Stanley Baldwin's Government. Robert Eden served as Prime Minister from 1955-1957. Eden died in 1977. Anthony Eden is buried in the country churchyard at Alvediston, just 3 miles upstream from 'Rose Bower' at the source of the River Ebble. He was fluent in French, German and Persian and also spoke Russian and Arabic.
Augustus Henry Fitzroy was born 28 September, 1735. Educated at Westminster School and Peterhouse, Cambridge. In 1756, he entered Parliament as MP for Boroughbridge, a pocket borough; several months later, he switched constituencies to Bury St Edmunds, which was controlled by his family. However, a year later, his grandfather died and he succeeded as 3rd Duke of Grafton, which elevated him to the House of Lords. He served as Prime Minister for 1 year, 106 days. He received the Garter from the King. Augustus Henry Fitzroy died 14 March, 1811, Euston Hall, Suffolk. Grafton County, New Hampshire, in the United States, is named in his honour, as is the town of Grafton, New South Wales, Australia.
David Lloyd George was born January 17, 1863, in Manchester. David was educated at Llanystumdwy Village School. In 1890, George was first elected as the Liberal MP for Caernarfon. He served as Prime Minister from 1916-1922. Was the first, and only Welsh Prime Minister that Britain has had so far and the last Liberal to hold the office. On New Years Day 1945 Lloyd George was raised to the peerage as Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor and Viscount Gwynedd, of Dwyfor in the County of Caernarvonshire. George died on March 26, 1945. A great boulder marks his grave; there is no inscription. However a grand monument designed by the late architect Sir Clough Williams-Ellis has since been erected around the grave, bearing an englyn (strict-metre stanza) engraved on slate in his memory composed by his nephew Dr William George. Across the lane stands one of the entrances to the impressive Lloyd George Museum, also designed by Williams-Ellis and opened in 1963.
William Ewart Gladstone was born on December 29, 1809, in Liverpool. William was educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford. Gladstone served as President of the Oxford Union debating society, where he developed a reputation as an orator, which followed him into the House of Commons. At university Gladstone was a Tory and denounced Whig proposals for parliamentary reform. Elected to Parliament in 1832 as Conservative Member of Parliament (MP) for Newark, partly through the influence of the local patron, the Duke of Newcastle. Although Gladstone entered Lincoln's Inn in 1833, with a view to becoming a barrister, by 1839 he had requested that his name should be removed from the list because he no longer intended to be called to the Bar. In the House of Commons, Gladstone was initially a disciple of High Toryism, opposing the abolition of slavery and factory legislation. In December 1834 he was appointed as a Junior Lord of the Treasury in Robert Peel's first ministry. The following month he was appointed as Under-Secretary of State for War and the Colonies, an office he held until the government's resignation in April 1835. Gladstone published his first book, The State in its Relations with the Church, in 1838, in which he argued that the goal of the state should be to promote and defend the interests of the Church of England. He served as Prime Minister four times from 1868-1874, 1880-1885, 1886, and 1892-1894. William Ewart Gladstone died on May 19, 1898. Gladstone, Queensland, Australia was named after him and has a statue on display in its town museum.
George Grenville was born on 14 October, 1712, at Westminster, London. George Grenville was educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford. In Parliament he subscribed to the "Boy Patriot" party which opposed Sir Robert Walpole. In December 1744 he became a lord of the admiralty in the administration of Henry Pelham. He allied himself with his brother Richard and with William Pitt the Elder (Richard's brother-in-law) in forcing their leader to give them promotion by rebelling against his authority and obstructing business. In June 1747 Grenville became a Lord of the Treasury, and in 1754 Treasurer of the Navy and Privy Councillor. A major falling out with King George III lead to Grenville eventually being sacked by the King. He served 2 years and 85 days as Prime Minister. George Grenville died on 13 November, 1770, London.
Charles Grey was born on March 13, 1764, in Northumberland. Known as Viscount Howick between 1806 and 1807. Charles was educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge. Grey was elected to Parliament at the age of 22 in 1786. He became a part of the Whig circle of Charles James Fox, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, and the Prince of Wales, and soon became one of the major leaders of the Whig party. Grey was noted for advocating Parliamentary reform. Grey served as Prime Minister from 1830-1834. Grey died on July 17, 1845. An interesting fact is that "Earl Grey" tea is named after him. He is commemorated by Grey's Monument in the centre of Newcastle upon Tyne, which consists of a statue of Lord Grey standing atop a 41 m (135 ft) high column. The monument lends its name to Monument Metro station on the Tyne and Wear Metro located directly underneath. Grey Street in Newcastle upon Tyne is also indebted to Lord Grey for its name.
Edward Richard George Heath was born on July 9, 1916, in St. Peter's, Kent. Heath was educated at Chatham House Grammar School and Balliol College, Oxford. During World War 2, Edward served in the Royal Artillery. He attained the rank of Colonel. In 1950, Heath was elected to Parliament as a Conservative. Although he lead the party to a loss in the 1966 general election, Heath lead the party to victory in the 1970 general election. He served as Prime Minister from 1970-1974. Edward Heath died on July 17, 2005 in Salisbury, Wiltshire. He wrote three non-political books, Sailing, Music, and Travels, and an autobiography, The Course of My Life (1998). The latter took 14 years to produce. Heath was a keen yachtsman. He bought his first yacht Morning Cloud in 1969 and won the Sydney to Hobart race that year. He captained Britain's winning team for the Admiral's Cup in 1971 while Prime Minister and also captained the team in the 1979 Fastnet race.
Thomas Pelham-Holles was born on 21 July 1693, London. Educated at Westminster School and Clare Hall, Cambridge. He held power with his brother, Henry Pelham (the Prime Minister of Great Britain), for about ten years; after Henry's death, the Duke would hold his late brother's position for six years (in two separate periods). While his premiership was not particularly notable, Newcastle precipitated the Seven Years War, which would cause his resignation from his high position. After his second term as Prime Minister, he served for a short while in Lord Rockingham's government, before retiring from government. He Died on 17 November, 1768.
Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home was born on October 9, 1995 in Mayfair, London. Alexander was educated at Eton College and Christ Church, Oxford. Alexander became the 14th Earl of Home after inheriting his fathers seat in the House of Lords. Douglas-Home served as Prime Minister from October, 1963 to October, 1964. He died on October 9, 1995. He held a series of records: he was the last member of the House of Lords to be appointed Prime Minister; the only Prime Minister to renounce his peerage to leave the House of Lords and contest a by-election to enter the House of Commons; and the last Prime Minister to be chosen personally by the British monarch. He was also the only Prime Minister to have played first class cricket and the first British Prime Minister to have been born in the 20th century.
Robert Banks Jenkinson was born June 7, 1770, in London. Robert was educated at Charterhouse and Christs Church College, Oxford. He won election to the House of Commons in 1790 for Rye, a seat he would hold until 1803, and rose quickly through the Tory ranks. Jenkinson served as Prime Minister from 1812-1827. Robert Banks Jenkinson died December 4, 1828. During his time as Prime Minister from 1812 to 1827, Liverpool became known for repressive measures introduced to maintain order, but also for steering the country through the period of radicalism and unrest that followed the Napoleonic Wars. Important events during his time as Prime Minister included the Congress of Vienna, the Corn Laws, the Peterloo Massacre and the emerging issue of Catholic Emancipation.
William Lamb was born March 15, 1779, in London. A British Whig statesman who served as Home Secretary (1830-1834) and Prime Minister (1834 and 1835-1841), and was a mentor of Queen Victoria. William studied at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1805 he succeeded his elder brother as heir to his father's title and he married Lady Caroline Ponsonby. The next year he was elected to the British House of Commons as the Whig MP for Leominster. Lamb served as Prime Minister from 1834 and 1835-1841. He died November 24, 1848 at Hertfordshire. Melbourne's most visible memorial is the city of Melbourne, Australia, which was named after him in 1837.
Harold Macmillan was born on February 10, 1894, in Brixton. A British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 11 January 1957 to 18 October 1963. Nicknamed 'Supermac', he did not use his first name and was known as Harold Macmillan before elevation to the peerage. When asked what represented the greatest challenge for a statesman, Macmillan replied: Events, my dear boy, events. Harold was educated at Eton and Oxford. Macmillan served with distinction as a captain in the Grenadier Guards during the war and was wounded on three occasions. During the Battle of the Somme, he spent an entire day wounded and lying in a foxhole with a bullet in his pelvis. In 1924, Macmillan was elected to the House of Commons, he lost his seat in 1929 but regained it in 1931. Macmillan served as Prime Minister from 1957 - 1963. In 1984, Macmillan accepted an earldom.
James Ramsay MacDonald was born October 12, 1866 in Lossiemouth, Morayshire. He rose from humble origins to become the first Labour Prime Minister in 1924. His second period as Prime Minister was during the crisis of the Great Depression when he formed a "National Government" in which a majority of MPs were from the Conservatives, and as a result he was expelled from the Labour Party. James was educated at the Church of Scotland school in Drainie and also attended night classes at Birkbeck Institute. In his early years MacDonald worked as a teacher. He served as Prime Minister in 1924 and again 1929-1935. MacDonald died on November 9, 1937, while on a cruise holiday crossing the Atlantic.
The Right Honourable Sir John Roy Major, was born on March 29, 1943. Major grew up in the poor area of Brixton. John attended "Rutlish Grammar School" where he left at age 16. Worked at the "Standard Chartered Bank". In 1968, Major was elected to the Lambeth borough council. In 1979, He was elected to Parliament as a Conservative. John Major became British Prime Minister on November 27, 1990. He resigned as Prime Minister on May 2, 1997. John Major was Knighted in 2005.
Lord North was born 13 April, 1732, Albermarle St., Piccadilly, London. Educated at Eton and Trinity College, Oxford. Some historians have blamed Lord North for the loss of America during the War of Independence. He served as a Member of Parliament from 1754 to 1790 and first joined the government as a junior Lord of the Treasury on 2 June 1759 during the Newcastle-Pitt coalition. North was appointed Joint Paymaster of the Forces in Chatham's ministry and became a Privy Counsellor in 1766. In December 1767, he succeeded Charles Townshend as Chancellor of the Exchequer. When the Duke of Grafton resigned as Prime Minister, North formed a government on 28 January 1770 Served as Prime Minister for 12 years, 58 days. Lord North died 5 August, 1792, London.
Viscount Palmerston was born October 20, 1784, in London. Educated at Harrow, Edinburgh University and St. John's College, Cambridge. Palmerston served as Prime Minister from 1855-1858 and 1859-1865. Viscount Palmerston died October 18, 1865, in Hertfordshire.
Sir Robert Peel was born February 5, 1788, in Bury, England. Robert was educated at Harrow and Christ Church, Oxford. The young Peel entered politics at the young age of 21 as MP for the Irish rotten borough of Cashel, Tipperary. With a scant 24 voters on the rolls, he was elected unopposed. For the next decade he occupied a series of relatively minor positions in the Tory governments: Undersecretary for War, Chief Secretary for Ireland, and chairman of the Bullion Committee (charged with stabilizing British finances after the end of the Napoleonic Wars). He also changed seats twice: first picking up another rotten borough, Chippenham, then becoming MP for Oxford University in 1817. He later served as MP for Tamworth from 1830 until his death. He served as Prime Minister from 1834-1835 and 1841-1846. Peel died on July 2, 1850. He helped create the modern concept of the police force while Home Secretary, oversaw the formation of the Conservative Party out of the shattered Tory Party, and repealed the Corn Laws.
Henry Palham was born on 25 September, 1694, at Laughton, Sussex. Henry Palham was Educated at Westminster School and Hart Hall, Oxford. Through strong family influence and the recommendation of Robert Walpole he was chosen in 1721 a Lord of the Treasury. The following year he was returned for Sussex county. In 1724 he entered the ministry as Secretary at War. Pelham served Prime Minister from 1743 to 1754. Henry Pelham died on 6 March 1754.
Spencer Perceval was born November 1, 1762 in London. He was educated at Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1796, he became a member of the House of Commons. Perceval served as British Prime Minister from 1809-1812. Spencer Perceval died May 11, 1812, in the Lobby of the House of Commons after being assassinated. On May 11, 1812, Perceval was on his way to attend the inquiry when he was shot through the heart in the lobby of the House of Commons by a mentally unsound man called John Bellingham, who blamed his financial instability on a casual suggestion of Perceval. He died almost instantly, uttering the words "I am murdered", and Bellingham gave himself up to officers. He was found guilty and hanged a week later. In later life Perceval had became an expert on Biblical prophecy and wrote pamphlets relating prophecies which he had discovered.
William Petty was born 2 May, 1737, Dublin, Ireland. He was educated at Christ Church, Oxford. After leaving the university he served in Wolfe's regiment (20th Foot) during the Seven Years' War, and so distinguished himself at Minden and Kloster-Kampen that he was raised to the rank of Colonel and appointed Aide-de-Camp to the King (1760). William Petty served as Prime Minister for 266 days. Known as The Earl of Shelburne between 1761 and 1784, by which title he is generally known to history, was a British Whig statesman who was the first Home Secretary in 1782 and then Prime Minister 1782 - 1783. Credited with securing the peace with America, Spain and France. William Petty died 7 May, 1805, London. Lord Lansdowne was twice married.
William Pitt was born 15 November, 1708, Westminster, London. He was educated at Eton, Trinity College Oxford, and the University of Utrecht. William Pitt had a colourful career and is credited with the birth of the British Empire. A British Whig statesman who achieved his greatest fame as Secretary of State during the Seven Years' War. He served as Prime Minister for 2 years, 76 days. William Pitt died 11 May, 1778, Bromley, Kent. He is often known as William Pitt, the Elder to distinguish him from his son, William Pitt the Younger. He was also known as The Great Commoner. In addition to the major American city of Pittsburgh being named after him, Pittsylvania County, Virginia, the communities of Pittsburg, New Hampshire and Chatham, New Jersey, as well as Chatham University in Pennsylvania are all named in his honor.
Archibald Primrose was born May 7, 1847, in London. He was educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford. In 1868, he succeeded to his grandfathers title as 5th Earl of Rosebery. Primrose served as Prime Minister from 1894-1895. Rosebery's government was largely unsuccessful. His designs in foreign policy, such as expansion of the fleet, were defeated by disagreements within the Liberal Party, while the Unionist-dominated House of Lords stopped the whole of the Liberals' domestic legislation. On June 21, 1895, Rosebery resigned after a minor defeat in the House of Commons. Archibald Primrose died May 21, 1929. Thoroughbred horse racing
As a result of his marriage to Hannah de Rothschild, Rosebery acquired Mentmore Towers and Mentmore stud near Leighton Buzzard that had been built by Mayer Amschel de Rothschild. Rosbery would build another stable and stud near Mentmore Towers at Crafton, Buckinghamshire, called Crafton Stud. Rosebery's horses won at least one of each of the five English Classic Races. Among the most famous were Ladas who won the 1894 Epsom Derby, Sir Visto who did it again in 1895, and Cicero in 1905. A southern suburb of Sydney, Australia, is named Rosebery, after the Earl.
Frederick John Robinson was born October 30, 1782 in London. Frederick John Robinson, 1st Earl of Ripon PC (November 1, 1782 - January 28, 1859), Frederick John Robinson until 1827, The Viscount Goderich 1827 - 1833, and The Earl of Ripon 1833 onwards, was a British statesman and Prime Minister (when he was known as Lord Goderich). He was educated at Harrow and St. John's College, Cambridge. Robinson entered Parliament in 1806. He was made Privy Counsellor in 1812, and served in various minor positions in the government of Lord Liverpool, including joint-Paymaster of the Forces, from which position he sponsored the Corn Laws of 1815, before entering the Cabinet in 1818 as President of the Board of Trade. In 1823 Robinson succeeded Nicholas Vansittart as Chancellor of the Exchequer. He served for a brief period as Prime Minister. Frederick John Robinson died January 28, 1859 in London.
John Russell was born August 18, 1792, in London. Russell was born into the highest echelons of the British aristocracy. The Russell family had been one of the principal Whig dynasties in England since the 17th century, and were among the richest handful of aristocratic landowning families in the country. John was educated at Westminster School and University of Edinburgh. Russell entered parliament as a Whig in 1813. In 1819, Russell embraced the cause of parliamentary reform, and led the more reformist wing of the Whigs throughout the 1820s. When the Whigs came to power in 1830 in Earl Grey's government, Russell entered the government as Paymaster of the Forces, and was soon elevated to the Cabinet. He was one of the principal leaders of the fight for the Reform Act 1832, earning the nickname Finality John from his complacently pronouncing the Act a final measure. In 1834, when the leader of the Commons, Lord Althorp, succeeded to the peerage as Earl Spencer, Russell became the leader of the Whigs in the Commons, a position he maintained for the rest of the decade, until the Whigs fell from power in 1841. He served as Prime Minister from 1846-1852 and 1865-1866. Russell died May 28, 1878 at Surrey.
John Stuart was born on 25 May, 1713 at Parliament Square, London. John Stuart was educated at Eton and the University of Leiden, Netherlands. In 1737, due to the influence of his uncles, he was elected a Scottish representative peer, but he was not very active in the Lords and was not reelected in 1741. For the next several years he retired to his estates in Scotland to manage his affairs and indulge his interest in botany. The Earl of Bute only served 317 days as British Prime Minister. Died on 10 March, 1792, Grosvenor Square, London. The flowering plant genus Stuartia is named after him.
Margaret Thatcher was born 13 October, 1925, in Grantham, Lincolnshire. Thatcher was educated at Kesteven and Grantham Girls School and Somerville College, Oxford. She became President of the university Conservative association. Margaret Thatcher was elected as the Conservative MP for Finchley in 1959. She was later shadow spokesperson for Education. Thatcher became Education Secretary in 1970. She became the the party leader in 1975. Then, in 1979, Margaret Thatcher lead her party to victory and became Prime Minister. Thatcher was the first woman to serve as Prime Minister. She was the Prime Minister for 11 years and 209 days.
Sir Robert Walpole was born on 26 August 1676, at Houghton, Norfolk. He was educated at Eton and King's College, Cambridge. He was married to Catherine Shorter and then Maria Skerrett. Sir Robert Walpole never actually held the title of "Prime Minister", which did not excist at that time. But Sir Robert Walpole was the first to live and work in Number 10 Downing Street and in history has been regarded as the first Prime Minister. Walpole, a Whig, served during the reigns of George I and George II. His tenure is normally dated from 1721, when he obtained the post of First Lord of the Treasury; others date it from 1730, when, with the retirement of Lord Townshend, he became the sole and undisputed leader of the Cabinet. The "longer" version of the tenure is generally upheld by the contemporary press, most notably that of the opposition, who focused far more attention upon Walpole than his counterpart. Walpole continued to govern until he resigned in 1742, making his administration the longest in British history. He went on to spend some 20 years as the Prime Minister. Sir Robert Walpole died in March, 1745.
Arthur Wellesley was born on May 1, 1769 in Ireland. He was educated at Eton and Royal Academy of Equitation, Angers, France. He served in the army and attained the rank of Field Marshal. Widely considered one of the leading military and political figures of the nineteenth century, and one of the greatest generals of all time. Commissioned an ensign in the British Army, he rose to prominence in the Napoleonic Wars, eventually reaching the rank of field marshal, after the Battle of Vittoria in 1813. His military career culminated at Waterloo, where he defeated the French Emperor, Napoleon in a hard fought battle. Wellesley served as Prime Minister from 1769-1852. During his first seven months as Prime Minister he chose not to live in the official residence at 10 Downing Street, finding it too small. He relented and moved in only because his own home, Apsley House, required extensive renovations. Arthur Wellesley died on September 14, 1852. He was largely instrumental in the foundation of King's College London.
Charles Wentworth was born: 13 May, 1730. A descendant of the 1st Earl of Strafford, Lord Rockingham was brought up at the family home of Wentworth Woodhouse near Rotherham in South Yorkshire. He was educated at the Westminster School and at St John's College, Cambridge. In 1746, he rode from Wentworth to Carlisle to join the Duke of Cumberland in pursuit of the "Young Pretender." Four years later, he was created Earl Malton in the Peerage of Ireland, then acceded to his father's marquessate shortly thereafter. He took his seat in the House of Lords the following year, and in 1751 was made a lord of the bedchamber to George II. He was made a knight of the Order of the Garter in 1761. Charles Wentworth served 1 year, 113 days as Prime Minister. His term was successful, but he was later sacked by the King. Charles Wentworth died 1 July, 1782, Wimbledon, London. He served in only two high offices during his lifetime (Prime Minister and Leader of the House of Lords), but was nonetheless very influential during his one and a half years of service.
Spencer Compton was born on 1673 in Compton Wynyates, Warwickshire. He was educated at St Paul's School, Westminster and Trinity College, Oxford. Served as Speaker of the House of Commons, Paymaster General, and treasurer to the Prince of Wales. Although his family were High Tories, he turned to the Whigs after a quarrel with his brother, the 4th Earl of Northampton. In Parliament he soon stood out as prominent amongst the Whigs and began a partnership with Robert Walpole that would last for over forty years. Spencer Compton, Earl of Wilmington, served as Prime Minister from 1742 -43. He died in 1743.
James Harold Wilson was born on March 11, 1916 in Huddersfield. Harold studied at the Wirral Grammar School for Boys, the Jesus College, Oxford and youngest Oxford University. For a while Wilson lectured in economics at New College and then at University College. Wilson served served as Prime Minister from 1964-1970 and 1974-1976. He was knighted in 1976. Harold Wilson died May 24, 1995. He is buried on St Mary's, Isles of Scilly. His epitaph is Tempus Imperator Rerum (Time Commands All Things). His memorial service was held in Westminster Abbey on 13 July.
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