POETS AND WRITERS

Poet Giacomo Leopardi
Born June 29, 1798, Italy. Poet and scholar. Interested in the study of the classics and philosophy from his early childhood. His Canti (songs) (1816 - 37) represent the flowering of his poetry. Leopardi was liberal and agnostic. Many of his works were deeply patriotic and contemptuous of the Italian rulers of his day. A complete edition of his works was issued in 1845. Died June 14, 1837, Naples.

Poet Gerard Manley Hopkins
Born Stratford, Essex, England, July 28, 1844. Raised in a prosperous and artistic family. Attended Balliol College, Oxford. In 1867 entered a Jesuit novitiate near London. Hopkins burnt all of the poetry he had written to date, and would not write again until 1875. Hopkins began to write again in 1875 after a German ship, the Deutschland, was wrecked. Hopkins poem "The Wreck of the Deutschland" introduced what Hopkins called "sprung rhythm." In 1884 he became a professor of Greek at the Royal University College in Dublin. Died from typhoid fever in 1889.

Poet George Gascoigne
1534 - 1577 Soldier and poet. Educated Trinity College, Cambridge. Entered Gray's Inn 1555. In 1561 married the already married Elizabeth Boyes. This led to a series of legal and financial difficulties culminating in a spell in debtors' gaol. From 1572 to 1574 was a soldier in the Netherlands. His poems and plays were published during his absence without his authority. On his return he brought out a corrected and augmented edition under the title of "The Posies of George Gascoigne".

Poet George Etherege
1636 - 1689. Came from a distinguished Oxfordshire family. Educated at Cambridge. Soon after the Restoration he composed his comedy of The Comical Revenge, or Love in a Tub, which was brought out in the Duke's theatre in 1664, and printed in the same year. In 1668 Etherege brought out "She Would If She Could". In 1683 he met a wealthy elderly widow, who consented to marry him if he made a lady of her. He accordingly got himself knighted, and gained her hand and money. Died 1689, by accident.

Poet Geoffrey Chaucer
English poet born in probably 1342. Little is known about Geoffreys schooling. Had some education in Latin and Greek. Was a page in the household of the Countess of Ulster. Later became a knight of the shire for Kent. Chaucer was sent on diplomatic errands throughout Europe. He gained knowledge of society, that made it possible to write "The Canterbury Tales". Died in October, 1400. Was the first to be buried in the "Poet's Corner" in Westminster Abbey.

Poet Francis Scott Key
Born Frederick, Maryland, August 1, 1779, U.S. Educated at St. John's College, Annapolis. Worked as an attorney, first in his home town, and then in Georgetown, in Washington, D.C. Key had spent the night of September 13-14 on an American ship as the British shelled Baltimore. He wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner," on an envelope as he was taken ashore. He later revised it in his hotel after night fell. His sister-in-law, Mrs. Joseph Hopper Nicholson, took it to a printer the next day. After being published on handbills, the anthem was printed in the Baltimore American on September 21. His poems were posthumously published in 1857. Married to Mary Tayloe Lloyd in 1802, Key had 11 children. He died on January 11, 1843.

Francis Beaumont
1584 - 1616. English Jacobean poet and playwright. Collaborated with John Fletcher on comedies and tragedies between 1606 and 1613. Beaumont entered Broadgates Hall (later Pembroke College), Oxford, in 1597. He left the university without a degree and later entered London's Inner Temple. In 1602 there appeared the poem Salmacis and Hermaphroditus, generally attributed to Beaumont. In 1613 Beaumont married an heiress, Ursula Isley of Sundridge in Kent and retired from the theatre. Died in London in 1616. Buried in Westminster Abbey. Of the 54 plays with which their names or the names of their other collaborators are associated, one or two were written by Beaumont alone and only 9 or 10 were written by Beaumont and Fletcher in collaboration. Beaumont's hand also probably appears in three other plays written together with Fletcher and Philip Massinger.

Poet Ernest Dowson 1867 - 1900 Born in Kent. In 1866 entered Queen's College, Oxford. He left without taking a degree. Joined the Rhymer's club and contributed poems to The Yellow Book and The Savoy. Published the first of his two books of poetry, "Verses", in 1896, and the second, "Decorations in Verse and Prose" in 1899. He was a friend of W. B. Yeats, who described him as 'timid, silent and a little melancholy'. Died of alcoholism in 1900 at age 33.

Poet Emily Dickinson
Born December 10, 1830, Amherst, Massachusetts. After her years at school, Emily lived in the family home for the rest of her life. Dickinson never married. Only ten of Dickinson's peoms were published during her lifetime, and those without her consent. After Dickinson's death in Cambridge on May 15, 1886 over 1700 poems, bound into booklets, were discovered in her bureau. Died 15 May, 1886.

Emily Brontë
Over time, Emily has been considered the greatest writer of the three Brontë sisters. Emily was born on July 30, 1818, in Thornton, Yorkshire. The Bronte family moved to Haworth when Emily was only two. Emily Bronte published only one novel, "Wuthering Heights" (1847). After her mother died in 1821, Emily spent most of her time in reading and composition. Between the years 1824 and 1825 Emily Bronte attended the school at Cowan Bridge with Charlotte, and then was largely educated at home. In 1835 Emily Bronte was at Roe Head, but returned home after a few months due to being homesick. In 1837, she spent six months as a governess at Law Hill, near Halifax. Emily and Charlotte Bronte went in 1842 to Brussels to learn foreign languages and school management. Emily returned on the same year to Haworth. Her first novel, Wuthering Heights (1847), failed to gain immediate success. But it has since became one of the most succesful novels in history. Emily Bronte died of tuberculosis in the late 1848. She had caught cold at her brother Branwell's funeral in September.

Ralph Waldo Emerson
Born May 25, 1803 in Boston, Massachusetts. He studied at Boston Latin School and later at Harvard University. Emerson became a Unitarian Minister but later resigned in 1832 after having doubts about his faith. In 1836, Emerson along with others founded the "Transcendental Club". Ralph Waldo Emerson died April 27, 1882. He wrote a number of poems and essays during his life.

Elizabeth Barrett Moulton-Barrett
Born March 6, 1806 in Durham, England. The eldest of 12 children. By the age of twelve she had written an "epic" poem consisting of four books of rhyming couplets. Elizabeth suffered a chronic lung ailment. She spent most of her time in a darkened room writing poety and many letters. The famous English poet Robert Browning admired her "Poems" (1844) so much that he wrote to her. They met, fell in love, and were secretly married in 1846. They moved to Florence, Italy. She took up contemporary issues including the Italian Nationalist cause, the abolition of slavery in the United States, and the position of women in Victorian society. Elizabeth died on June 29, 1861.

Poet Edmund Spenser
1552 - 1599. Educated at the Merchant Taylors' School, then Pembroke Hall in Cambridge. Became secretary to John Young, the bishop of Rochester. Married Machabyas Chylde. His works include "The Faerie Queene", "Shepheardes Calender", Colin Clouts Come Home Again, Amoretti and Epithalamion, Fowre Hymnes. In 1580 Spenser was appointed secretary to Lord Grey of Wilton. Settled in Ireland in 1591 and wrote Colin Clouts. He married again to Elizabeth Boyle in 1594. Died in London in some distress.

Edgar Allan Poe
Born Boston, Massachusetts, January 19, 1809. Poe's father and mother died before he was three years old. Educated at the best boarding schools, later he went to the University of Virginia. Forced to leave the University when Allan refused to pay his gambling debts. In 1827 he joined the United States Army. His first collection of poems, Tamerlane, and Other Poems, was published that year. Married Virginia in 1836. Some of his best known stories and poems include "The Fall of the House of Usher," "The Tell-Tale Heart," "The Murders in the Rue Morgue," and "The Raven." Poe died of "acute congestion of the brain."

Charles Dickens
Born February 7, 1812 in Portsea, England. He was forced to start work at only ten years old to help support his family. As an adult Charles worked as a law clerk, court stenographer, a journalist and later the editor of Bentley's Miscellany. Dickens married Catherine Hogarth on April 2, 1836. Together they had ten children. Charles Dickens died June 9, 1870. He is best known for his novels "Oliver Twist" and "Great Expectations".

Poet David Bates
Born at Indian Hill, Ohio, March 6, 1809. Educated as a clerk in Buffalo and then in a mercantile house in Indianapolis, Indiana. Published a volume of poetry, Eolian, in 1849.

Poet Dante Gabriel Rossetti
1828 - 1882. Born in London. Studied at Sass's drawing academy for four years. Then in 1846, Rossetti was enrolled at the Royal Academy Schools. In 1848 he met Holman Hunt, and through Hunt, Rossetti became acquainted with Millais, and the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was born. Married Elizabeth Siddal. She died two years later of a laudanum overdose. Rossetti had her interned with the only extent and complete manuscript of his poems. However, he had her exhumed seven years later so as to retrieve his work. The last decade of his life was spent mostly in a state of semi-invalid hermitry.

Poet Christopher Marlowe
Born 1564. Educated King's School, Canterbury and Corpus Christi College where he received his Bachelor of Arts in 1584 and his Masters degree three years later. Settled in London in 1587 and began career as a playwright. Marlowe soon wrote Tamburlaine, the first notable English play in blank verse. In 1593, after pointing out what he considered to be inconsistencies in the Bible, Marlowe fell under suspicion of heresy. His roommate was tortured into giving evidence against him, but before he could be brought before the Privy Council, the poet was found dead at Dame Eleanore Bull's tavern in Deptford. Died 1593.

Poet Christina Georgina Rossetti
1830 - 1894. Educated at home. Was encouraged to write by her family. Her teenage poems were printed by her grandfather on his own press. She was a devout Anglican and refused two suitors on religious grounds. Her collections of verse include Goblin Market and Other Poems (1862), The Prince's Progress and Other Poems (1866) and A Pageant and Other Poems (1881), and 'A Birthday', 'Remember', 'Uphill' and the Christmas carol 'In the Bleak Mid-Winter'. Illness had rendered her an invalid by the time she was fifty. After her death her brother W.M. Rossetti brought out an edition of her later poetry, New Poems, in 1896, and edited her Collected Poems (1904).

Charlotte Bronte
Born on 1816. Was one of six children of the Reverend Patrick Bronte. Charlotte`s mother died of cancer at just 38. Charlotte and three of her sisters went to a Clergy Daughters' School. Charlotte became a governess to support the family and her brother Branwell's artistic career. In 1842 Charlotte and Emily went to Brussels, Charlotte stayed on for a year on her own. Married Arthur Bell Nichols, in 1854. In 1846, the three Bronte sisters had a book of their combined poems published. The book appeared under their three chosen pseudonyms, Charlotte became 'Currer Bell', Emily became 'Ellis Bell' and Anne became 'Acton Bell'. Three novels followed, Charlotte's 'Jane Eyre', Emily's 'Wuthering Heights' and Anne's 'Agnes Grey'. Her novels tell the tales of strong and honourable women.

Poet Charles Kingsley
Born on July 12, 1819. In 1832 studied with Derwent Coleridge, then, 1837 at King's College, London. In 1838 matriculated Magdalene College, Cambridge. Married Frances (Fanny) Grenfell in 1844. Joined with John Malcolm Ludlow, Frederick Denison Maurice, and others in forming the Christian Socialist movement. He also published a volume of sermons, a consideration of public health matters titled Who Causes Pestilence?, and "The Wonders of the Shore". In 1858 he gathered his poetry into the volume published as Andromeda and Other Poems. "The Water-Babies", A Fairy Tale for a Land-Baby, arguably his most enduring work, appeared serially in Macmillan's Magazine in 1862 and was published in volume format in 1863. Edited Fraser's Magazine briefly in 1867. In 1872 he published Town Geology and became President of the Midland Institute in Birmingham. Died, January 23, 1875.

Charles Stuart Calverley
1831 - 1884. Born December 22, 1831, at Martley, Worcestershire. Educated at Marlborough College, Harrow, Oxford, and Cambridge. Elected a fellow of Christ's College, appointed a lecturer in Classics in 1857. In 1863 married his cousin Ellen. Suffered from Bright's disease until his death in 1884. His published works include Translations into English and Latin (1866) and Fly Leaves (1872). His Literary Remains came out posthumously in 1865.

Robert Browning
One of the major Victorian poets. He was a master of dramatic monologue and psychological portraiture as well as verse drama. His published plays include "Strafford," "Bells and Pomegranates," and "Pippa Passes." In 1845, he met poet Elizabeth Barrett and married her the next year and lived the majority of their married life in Italy. One of his most famous dramatic monologues appears in the poem Fra Lippo Lippi, which was published in 1855 in "Men and Women," a collection of 51 poems. Elizabeth died in 1861, and Browning moved back to England with his son. He gained enormous fame and popularity after releasing "The Ring and the Book," which was based on the proceedings of a murder trial in Rome in 1698. He continued to write and publish mostly long narrative or dramatic poems through the later years of his life.

Benjamin Franklin King
Born on March 17, 1857, St. Joseph, Michigan, U.S. Married Aseneth Belle Latham, November 27, 1883. Had two sons. Member, Chicago Press Club and Whitechapel Club. King published verse in newspapers and journals like The Century, sometimes under the pseudonym "Bow Hackley". Died April 8, 1894, Bowling Green, Kentucky. Friends from the Press Club published Ben King's Verse in 1894.

James Barrie
Born in Kirriemuir, on May 9, 1860. James father was a weaver. James attended school in Kirriemuir and Forfar. He later, attended the Edinburgh University. While there James Barrie wrote some articles for the Edinburgh newspaper. For a while Barrie worked at the "Nottingham Journal". In 1885, Barrie moved to London. James started wriring articles for newspapers to earn some money. In 1888, Barrie published, "Auld Licht Idylls. Barrie married Mary Ansell, in 1894. Barrie got to know a Mr & Mrs Llewelyn-Davies. Through the friendship he developed with their sons, Barrie eventually came to write "Peter Pan". The play appeared in London on December 29, 1904. Barrie eventually gave the perpetual rights of it to the Great Ormond Street Hospital for Sick Children. Barrie was elected lord rector of St. Andrew's University. Then in 1930, chancellor of Edinburgh University. James Barrie died on June 19, 1937. He was buried at Kirriemuir.

Elizabeth Barrett Browning
An English poet whose works include the book Sonnets From the Portuguese, which was dedicated to her husband Robert Browning. Elizabeth Barrett Browning suffered from serious illness that lasted the rest of her life. Her family moved to London in 1836 where she began to write poems that appeared in several locals. She met and married the poet Robert Browning in 1846 settling in Florence. The release of Sonnets From the Portuguese in 1850 chronicled the courtship of the Brownings. She released her most ambitious work a long blank verse poem titled Aurora Leigh, which was widely received by the public and widely panned by critics.

Jane Austen
An English writer born at Steventon, Hampshire, England, on December 16, 1775. Her Father was the the Rev. George Austen, (Church of England clergyman). Her Mother was Cassandra. Jane Austen was one of eight children. Jane was briefly taught by a Mrs. Cawley in 1783. Then in 1785, Jane and her sister Cassandra, attended the Abbey boarding school in "Reading". From 1787 to 1793, Jane wrote her Juvenilia. Jane dedicated most of the pieces to her relatives and family friends.
In 1797, Janes Father offered First Impressions/Pride and Prejudice to a publisher. The publisher declined to even read the manuscript. In late 1800 her father decided to retire to Bath. The Austen family moved there the next year. Jane Austen sold "Northanger Abbey" (then titled Susan) to a publisher in 1803. Jane was paid the amount of £10. Then in January, 1805, her father died. In 1806, the Austen family moved from Bath to Clifton, then to Southampton. They moved again in 1809 to Chawton. Jane revised "Sense and Sensibility". It was accepted by a publisher for publication at her own risk. It appeared anonymously ("By a Lady") in October 1811, The first edition eventually returned Jane Austen a profit of £140. Jane then revised "First Impressions", a.k.a. "Pride and Prejudice". She sold it in November 1812. Jane Austen later got the title for "Pride and Prejudice" from a phrase in Burney's "Cecilia". Jane sold the copyright of "Pride and Prejudice" for only £110. "Mansfield Park" appeared in May 1814, and was sold out in six months. Then in December 1815, "Emma" appeared. It was dedicated to the Prince Regent Jane started on Persuasion in August, 1815, and completed it in August, 1816. Jane moved to Winchester for medical treatment. Jane Austen died there on Friday, July 18th, 1817. There is a coloured sketch Of Jane on display in the National Portrait Gallery. The Sketch was done by her sister, Cassandra. Jane Austen was buried in Winchester Cathedral, July 24th, 1817.

Aphra Behn
Was the first women in England to earn a living as a writer. Very little is known about her background, who her parents were, and where she was born. Aphra lived for a time in Surinam, an experienced that inspired her first novel, Oroonoko, or The Royal Slave (1688). She was married and widowed by age 25. She secured employment as a spy for King Charles II and was sent to Belgium in this capacity. The King refused to pay her return trip, however, and after borrowing the funds to return, she was thrown into debtor's prison. After leaving prison she became a successful London playwright and then a novelist. Because she openly expressed her viewpoints in her lifestyle and through her writing, she was seen by many as scandalous.

Anne Bradstreet
Born in England. Bradstreet's parents were Puritans. Given a much better education than most young women of her time. At 16 married Simon Bradstreet, also a Puritan. In 1630, Anne, her husband, and her parents sailed to the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1650, her brother-in-law took a gathering of her poems to London. The collection was the first to be published by anyone living in the North American colonies.

Anne Bronte
Born on 17 January 1820. Anne was the sixth and last child of the Reverend Patrick Bronte. Anne`s mother died of cancer at just 38. At a very early age Anne Bronte developed a keen interest in reading and writing. Then, in 1839 Anne Bronte began her first job as a governess with the Ingham family. In 1846, the three Bronte sisters had a book of their combined poems published. The book appeared under their three chosen pseudonyms, Charlotte became 'Currer Bell', Emily became 'Ellis Bell' and Anne became 'Acton Bell'. The first novel of Anne Bronte was "Agnes Grey". Jane Eyre was the first to appear in print. Anne followed with her second novel, "The Tenant of Wildfell Hall". Anne had been suffering from what was thought to be a cold, but it was eventually diagnosed as tuberculosis. Anne Bronte died at 2 o'clock in the afternoon of Whit Monday, 28 May 1849.

Anna Laetitia Barbauld
Born 1743 in Kibworth Harcourt, Leicestershire Her father, John Aikin, was a Presbyterian minister and schoolteacher. Anna received a conventional domestic education from her mother. In 1761, Joseph Priestley moved to Warrington to teach and Anna became a close friend of Priestley and his wife. Reading Priestley's verse is believed to have inspired her to write her own. Anna's younger brother encouraged her to write and publish. Her first published pieces were six poems in his book Essays on Song-Writing, 1771. In 1772, William Enfield included five of her hymns in his collection Hymns for Public Worship. In 1773, Miss Aikin published a major collection of her own Poems. In 1774 Anna married Rochemont Barbauld. They had no children of their own and in 1777 adopted her brother's third son. The last of Mrs. Barbauld's writings to be independently published was Eighteen Hundred And Eleven, A Poem. After her death in 1825, her niece, Lucy Aikin, published two collections of her works, "The Works of Anna Lætitia Barbauld, with a Memoir by Lucy Aikin (1825)" and "A Legacy for Young Ladies (1826)". Died 1825 Stoke Newington, London.

Poet Andrew Marvell
Born 1621, Winstead, Yorkshire. Educated Cambridge, where he received Batchelor of Arts degree in 1638. Later became the tutor of Mary Fairfax. Also tutored Cromwell's ward, William Dutton, from 1653 - 57. Appointed as John Milton's assistant in the office of Latin Secretary for the Commonwealth. In 1659 he became Member of Parliament for Hull. Most of his work was only found and published after his death. In 1678, after 18 years in Parliament, Marvell died rather suddenly of a fever. Gossip of the time suggested that the Jesuits had poisoned him.

Poet Amelia Opie
Her other novels include, The Father and Daughter (1801), Valentine's Eve (1816) and Madelaine (1822). She married the painter John Opie in 1798 (her maiden name was Alderson). In 1825, she became a Quaker, devoting herself to spiritual writing.

Poet Allan Ramsay
1686 - 1758. Born LeadhilIs (Lanarkahire), 15 October 1684. Was apprenticed to an Edinburgh wig maker and in 1710 opened his own shop. In 1712, he co-founded the Easy Club. In 1720 he became a bookseller. Founded what is thought to have been the first circulating library in Britain. His first collection was published in 1721. Ramsay also had an interest in early Scots poetry. Buried in Greyfriars Churchyard.

Poet Lord Alfred Tennyson
1809 - 1883. Born August 6, 1809, Somersby, Lincolnshire, England. One of twelve children. At just age twelve he wrote a 6,000-line epic poem. In 1827 attended Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1830, Tennyson published "Poems", "Chiefly Lyrical", and in 1832 he published a second volume entitled simply "Poems". In 1850, with the publication of "In Memoriam", Tennyson became one of Britain's most popular poets. Married Emily Sellwood. They had two sons. In 1859, Tennyson published the first poems of "Idylls of the Kings", which sold more than 10,000 copies in one month. Died in 1892. Buried in Westminster Abbey.

Cecil Frances Alexander
1818 - 1895. British hymn writer. Cecil Frances Humphreys began writing poetry at the age of nine. Her Verses for Holy Seasons 1846 was followed by the immensely popular Hymns for Little Children 1848. The collection contained such hymns as 'All things bright and beautiful', 'Once in Royal David's city', 'Jesus guides us o'er the tumult' and 'There is a green hill far away'. In 1850 she married the Rev. William Alexander. Mrs Alexander published seven more volumes of poetry, mostly devotional but also including musical verse. and Irish historical ballads. She also contributed to leading contemporary magazines. She died in the Bishop's Palace, Londonderry.

Louisa May Alcott
Born November 29, 1832, in Germantown, Philadelphia. Alcott spent some of her early years working in a series of jobs including governess, teacher, nurse and seamstress. Louisa also wrote for the Atlantic Monthly. Louisa May Alcott died in Boston on March 6, 1888, from the effects of mercury poisoning.

Thomas Hardy
An English novelist and poet. Hardy left school in 1856 and become an architect and church restorer in Dorchester. Hardy then spent five years in London writing poetry. During this time he penned "Neutral Tones." In Cornwall in 1870 Hardy met his future wife Emma Lavinia Gifford. The meeting would later be recaptured more than 40 later in a group of poems called Veteris Vestigiae Flammae. Hardy published his first memorable novel "Far From the Madding Crowd" in 1874. It was with the publication of Tess of the D'Urbervilles in 1891 that Hardy began to clash with Victorian morality.

Helen Maria Hunt Jackson
Oct.15, 1830 - Aug. 12, 1885. Born Helen Fiske, Amherst, Mass. U.S. Grew up in a literary environment. Poet and writer of children’s stories, novels and essays. Took her two last names from her husbands. She married Edward Bissell Hunt, was widowed young, and later she married William Sharpless Jackson. Was a friend of Emily Dickinson. In 1881, published A Century of Dishonor, a 476-page indictment of the federal government's mistreatment of Native Americans, copies of which she sent to every member of Congress.

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Born Portland, Maine, February 27, 1807. Educated Portland Academy, Bowdoin College, then at Harvard University. Teached at Bowdoin from 1829 to 1835 as a professor of foreign languages. Joined Harvard as Smith Professor of French and Spanish in 1836. Married twice. He had three daughters and two sons. Longfellow's first book of poems, "Voices of the Night", was published in 1839. Longfellow published more than 20 books. A bust was placed in Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey after his death, the only American to be afforded this honour.

Poet Henry Vaughan
Born probably 1621 in Breconshire. Educated Jesus College, Oxford. Later spent two years in London studying law. In 1646 married Catherine Wise. Published his first book of verse, Poems, with the Tenth Satire of Juvenal Englished. After the death of his first wife, he married her sister Elizabeth. Had four children by each wife.

Aldous Huxley
Born July 26, 1894 in Godalming, Surrey, England. His family were highly educated and respected. His Father a writer, his brother a biologist. Huxley studied at Eton, then later at Oxford University. While at Oxford he became close friends with D. H. Lawrence. Aldous had wrote his first novel by the age seventeen. In 1919, he married Maria Nys. Aldous Huxley died November 22, 1963. It was the novel "Brave New World" that gained Huxley the most fame. But he also wrote poetry, short stories and film scripts.

Isabella Valancy Crawford
1850 - 1887. Born in Dublin. Immigrated to Canada in the 1850s. Crawford sold her prose and poetry to newspapers for a living. Some of her earlier work appeared in the Favourite and the Toronto Mail. Between 1875 and 1879 she published only in American periodicals. In 1879 she began contributing to the Toronto Globe and the Toronto Evening Telegram. In 1884 published "Old Spookses' Pass", "Malcolm's Katie" and Other Poems.

Poet John Donne
Born 1572, London, England. Studied at Oxford and Cambridge Universities. At age twenty he studied law at Lincolns Inn. Donne wrote most of his love lyrics, erotic verse, and some sacred poems in the 1590's. Founder of the Metaphysical Poet. In 1601, Donne secretly married Anne More, the sixteen-year-old niece of Lady Edgarton. His wife died in 1617, shortly after giving birth to their twelfth child, a stillborn. Died in London in 1631.

Poet John Dryden
English poet and dramatist. Born August 19, 1631, Aldwinkle, Northamptonshire, England. Received education at Westminster School and Trinity College, Cambridge. Moved to London, 1657, to commence career as a professional writer. The playwright's reputation grew quickly. In 1668, Dryden was appointed Poet Laureate of England. Agreed to write exclusively for Thomas Killigrew's theatrical company and became a shareholder. In 1672, Dryden turned his hand to comedy. In his later years Dryden turned to poetry. Died London, May 12, 1700. Buried in Westminster Abbey.

Poet John Gay
1685 - 1732. English playwright and poet. Born in Barnstaple. Educated at the local grammar school. Was apprenticed to a silk mercer before commencing his literary career in London. His poetry includes "The Shepherd's Week" (1714) and "Trivia", or the "Art of Walking the Streets of London" (1716). His plays include "The Beggar's Opera" (1728). Gay composed the lyrics to many songs, including "'Twas When the Seas Were Roaring," and he wrote many ballads, the most familiar of which is "Sweet William's Farewell to Black-eyed Susan."

Poet John Keats
Born 31 October, 1795. One of five children. Details of Keats's early life are scarce. His brother George recollected a happy childhood with affectionate parents. Keats made friends easily. But it is worth discussing his friendships, at least briefly, so as to understand their impact upon his life. In July 1820, John left England for Italy. Keats had been experiencing ill health and it was thought that the warmer air of Italy would help cure him. Died of tuberculosis on February 23, 1821, at the age of 26.

Poet John Milton
Born London 1608. Educated at St. Paul's school, and in 1625 enrolled at Christ's College, Cambridge. His father wanted him to be a lawyer, but took it very well when his son announced that he intended to make the writing of poetry his life's work. In 1629, he wrote "On the morning of Christ's Nativity,". Later he wrote a masque, which was presented in 1634, at Ludlow Castle. Between 1641 and 1660, Milton wrote almost no poetry. One work that Milton wrote but never published was a theological treatise called De Doctrina Christiana ("On Christian Doctrine"). In 1642 Milton married Mary Powell. Mary and John had three daughters. Milton had gone blind and now composed his poems in his head, dictating each day to his daughters. Died 8 November 1674.

Poet John Newton
Born July 24, 1725, London. Joined the merchant marine as a youth. While returning home, Newton underwent a sudden religious conversion in March 1748 as he steered the ship through a storm. Married childhood sweetheart, Mary Catlett. Continued to captain slave ships until 1754. His autobiography, The Authentic Narrative (1764), was published the year he became a priest in the Church of England. There his dramatic preaching earned him large audiences, among whom was the poet William Cowper, and they became close friends. They jointly authored Olney Hymns in 1779 (280 hymns by Newton, and 68 by Cowper), many works from which still remain popular today. Died December 21, 1807. Buried at St. Mary Woolnoth.

Poet John Oldham
1653 - 1683. Graduated, Oxford University and entered the teaching profession. His works include 'A Satire upon a Woman Who by Her Falsehood and Scorn Was the Death of My Friend' (1678), 'Satires upon the Jesuits' (1679), and 'A Satire Against Virtue' (1679). Oldham's poetry and translations of Juvenal were collected in 'Poems and Translations', published after his death. Died of smallpox at age 30. John Dryden's elegy, 'To the Memory of Mr. Oldham' lamented the poet's early death and unfulfilled potential.

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Joseph Addison
1672 - 1719. Addison was born in Wiltshire, England. Passed from Chaterhouse school of Queen's College, Oxford, and graduated at Magdalene College in 1693. Educated at Lichfield Grammar School. As a young man his literary fame grew rapidly and with his friend Richard Steele, he contributed essays to the 'Tatler'. His later work, the 'Spectator', containing essays by himself, Steele, Pope, and others, is the most famous and influential of all 18th century magazines. In Sir Roger de Coverley, the Tory country squire, Addison created one of the great English comic characters. In 1709 he was sent to Ireland as secretary to the Lord Lieutenant. In 1716 he married the Countess Dowager of Warwick. In 1717 was appointed secretary of state. Died at Holland House in 1719. Addison is buried in Westminster Abbey.

Poet Joseph Rodman Drake
Born New York city, Aug. 7, 1795. Orphan at an early age, he entered a mercantile house. Began to study medicine in 1813. In 1816 he was admitted to practise medicine. Also in the same year he married Sarah Eckford. Wrote the poem, "The Culprit Fay," 1817. In 1819 began anonymous daily contributions to the New York Evening Post under the pen-name "Croakers." Died New York city, Sept. 21, 1820.

John Keats
Was an English romantic lyric poet. He died at the young age of 25 from tuberculosis. Keats was the son of a stable manager and had little formal education. Keats was apprenticed to a surgeon in 1811. He left the position in 1814 and went to work as a junior house surgeon in London. In 1817 Keats resigned devoting himself solely to poetry. His first serious poem was the sonnet "On First Looking Into Chapman's Homer" in 1816. He released his first book of poetry titled Poems in 1817. The following year Keats began to show symptoms of tuberculosis. Keats greatest work appeared in 1819 including "Ode to a Grecian Urn," "Ode to a Nightingale," "The Eve of St. Agnes," and "To Autumn." Suffering the ravages of tuberculosis, Keats travelled south for the winter in 1820, residing in Rome until his death in early 1821.

Rudyard Kipling
Was born in Bombay, India in 1865. Kipling was educated at the United Services College, England. Rudyard returned to India where he worked for a local newspaper before eventually returning to England. He married Caroline Balestier in 1892. Kipling is most famous for the children's story "The Jungle Book". Rudyard Kipling died in 1936 and is buried in Westminster Abbey. During his life Kipling was awarded with numerous honorary degrees and awards including the "Gold Medal of the Royal Society of Literature", in 1926, and the 1907 "Nobel Prize for literature".

D.H. Lawrence
Was born September 11, 1885 in Nottinghamshire, England. His birth home is now a museum. He studied at Beauvale Board School. Later, Lawrence attened the University College Nottingham. Lawrence published his first novel, "The White Peacock", in 1911. He married Frieda von Richtenhof Weekley in 1914. Lawrence had his novel "The Rainbow", banned for alleged obscenity. Over 1,000 copies of the book were destroyed. D.H. Lawrence died March 2, 1930. He was most well known for his novels "Lady Chatterly's Lover" and "Sons and Lovers".

Poet Leigh Hunt
1784 - 1859. English poet, essayist, critic, and journalist. His poem "The Story of Rimini" (1816), was influential on the second generation of Romantic poets. An edition of Hunt's Poetical Works was published in 1838. Most of his prose appeared in the form of essays in his own journals. Was a friend of writers such as Hazlitt, Lamb, Keats, and Shelley. With his brother John, Hunt established the "Examiner" in 1808. Because of an article casting aspersions on the prince regent, the brothers were imprisoned from 1813 to 1815.

Letitia Elizabeth Landon
Born August 14, 1802, London. L. E. L. was how she signed her poems, stories, and novels. Earned a good living from her writings. Her historical novel Ethel Churchill (1837) is thought her best work. Her affairs with her editors William Jerdan (Literary Gazette) and William Macginn (Fraser's Magazine) marked her with scandal. Married George Maclean in 1838. The couple sailed in August for Africa, but by October, L.E.L. was dead at age 36 from an overdose of medication she used to treat a recurring problem with stomach spasms.

Cecil Frances Alexander
1818 - 1895 British hymn writer. Cecil Frances Humphreys began writing poetry at the age of nine. Her Verses for Holy Seasons 1846 was followed by the immensely popular Hymns for Little Children 1848. The collection contained such hymns as 'All things bright and beautiful', 'Once in Royal David's city', 'Jesus guides us o'er the tumult' and 'There is a green hill far away'. In 1850 she married the Rev. William Alexander. Mrs Alexander published seven more volumes of poetry, mostly devotional but also including musical verse. and Irish historical ballads. She also contributed to leading contemporary magazines. She died in the Bishop's Palace, Londonderry.

Mark Akenside
English poet and physician. 1721-1770 His chief literary work was the didactic poem The Pleasures of Imagination. Akenside's conversion to Tory principles at the accession of George III earned him the appointment of physician to the queen. Attended the University of Edinburgh with the original intention of becoming a minister. Ended up studying medicine. During this time Akensides reputation as a poet was growing.

Karl Marx
Was born May 5, 1818 in Trier, Prussia, (Germany). Originally studied at the University of Bonn where he studied law, but later transferred to the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität in Berlin. For a time Karl worked as the editor of "Rheinische Zeitung". He gained fame through his writings "The Communist Manifesto" and "Das Kapital". It is said that the theories of Marx were used ny Lenin in Russia. Karl Marx died March 14, 1883 in London. He spent most of his life in poverty relying on the financial aid of others. Marx is regarded as the Father of communism.

Mary Barber
Born England 1690. Married Jonathan Barber. Her husband may have died in 1733 because she does not refer to him after that time. Had four children. First poems were published in Dublin. The Carteret family became her patrons, and in 1728 Barber was introduced to Swift and became part of his circle. Barber went to England with the help of Swift she assembled a large list of subscribers for a volume of poems. Returned to Ireland in 1732. In 1741 with her health failing she returned to Ireland. She published no more poetry after that time. Died in 1757.

Matthew Arnold
Born in 1822. Was educated at Winchester, Rugby, and Balliol College, Oxford. Was elected Fellow of Oriel College in 1845. For 10 years 1857-1867 he held the chair of poetry at Oxford. Among his productions may be noted his Newdigate prize poem "Cromwell" (1843), "The Strayed Reveller," and a volume of "New Poems" published in 1869. Later works were chiefly theological. "St. Paul and Protestantism" (1870), "Literature and Dogma" (1873), and "God and the Bible" (1875), are among his writings. He died in 1888.

Pablo Neruda
A Chilean poet and diplomat and winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1971. His first volume, Crepusulario, was self-published in 1923. The following year, he published Veinte Poemas de Amor y una Cancion Desesperada (Twenty Love Poems and A Song of Despair), which was to become one of his most popular books. Neruda was also active in politics, serving as a senator in Chile and as Chilean consul to Mexico, Argentina, and Spain. Neruda's work is known for its directness and simple, forceful passion. Many of his most beautiful love poems were written for his wife Matilde.

Poet Nicholas Breton. 1545? - 1626. Poet, Miscellanist, Pamphleteer. Very little is known of the life of Nicholas Breton. Son of a wealthy London merchant. Between 1575 and his death he published over 30 individual collections of verse, three prose fictions and at least 25 pamphlets and miscellaneous works.

Poet Oliver Goldsmith
Born November 10, 1730, in Pallas, Ireland. Anglo-Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and essayist. Educated at Trinity College, Dublin. Later studied medicine at the universities of Edinburgh and Leiden. In England he practiced medicine, taught school, and eventually worked for various publishers, producing literary works to order. In 1763, Goldsmith became one of the original nine members of the celebrated literary society known as "The Club". In 1764, Goldsmith's philosophic poem "The Traveller", was published and established him as an important writer. Died April 4, 1774, in London. Buried in the churchyard of the Church of Saint Mary (known as The Temple), London. The Club erected a memorial to him in Westminster Abbey.

Poet Oliver Wendell Holmes
Born Cambridge, Massachusetts, August 29, 1809. Graduated in 1829 from Phillips Academy and Harvard. His first poem, written at 21, was "Old Ironsides." His career turned to medical writing and teaching with his appointment as a professor of anatomy at Dartmouth College in 1838. Became Parkman Professor of Anatomy and Physiology, and Dean, at Harvard Medical School in 1847. Married Amelia Lee Jackson in 1840. Holmes believed his best poems were, "The Chambered Nautilus" and "The Deacon's Masterpiece, or the Wonderful `One-Hoss-Shay.'" Besides issuing enlarged editions of his 1836 Poems, he published four subsequent volumes, Songs in Many Keys (1862), Songs of Many Seasons (1875), The Iron Gate, and Other Poems (1880), and Before the Curfew and Other Poems (1887). Wrote three novels that took advantage of his medical knowledge. His collected poems came out from Cambridge in 1895. Holmes died Boston, October 7, 1894.

Poet Percy Bysshe Shelley
Born August 4, 1792, Field Place, Sussex, England. Educated Eton College, then went to Oxford University. His first publication was a Gothic novel, "Zastrozzi" (1810). At just 19 years of age, Shelley eloped to Scotland with Harriet Westbrook, sixteen, and married. In 1817, Shelley produced Laon and Cythna. It was later edited and reissued as The Revolt of Islam (1818). During the final years of his life, Shelley produced all his major works, including Prometheus Unbound (1820). On July 8, 1822, Shelley was drowned in a storm while sailing from Leghorn to Le Spezia, Italy.

Poet Phillis Wheatley
Born around 1753 in West Africa. Brought to New England in 1761. Purchased as a gift. Although a slave, the Wheatleys took a great interest in her education. She began writing poetry at age thirteen. First black poet in America to publish a book. In 1773, thirty-nine of her poems were published in London as Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral. In 1776, Wheatley wrote a letter and poem in support of George Washington. He replied with an invitation to visit him in Cambridge. Married John Peters in 1778. Died alone in a boarding house in 1784.

Plato
A Greek Philosopher who was born in 428 B.C. in Athens and died in 347 B.C. His real name was "Aristocles". During his early years he was a pupil of Socrates. When he was 40, Plato founded one of the earliest known schools in Western civilization, callede "The Academy". Plato at one time was a teacher of Aristotle. "The Republic" is regarded as his most influential work.

Richard Harris Barham
Pseudonym of Thomas Ingoldsby. English poet and humorist. Ordained a minister in 1813 he became a minor canon of the Chapel Royal in 1824. In 1837 he began in Bentley's Miscellany, under his pseudonym, a series of parodies of country superstitions, medieval legends, and contemporary foibles. Ingoldsby Legends were published in book form in 1840.

Poet Richard Lovelace
Born in the Netherlands. Educated at Charterhouse and Oxford. Showed an early interest in writing, producing a comedy "The Scholar" at the age of 16. Accompanied Charles I on his ill-fated expedition to quell the Scots' rebellion of 1639 - 40. While in prison in 1642, Lovelace wrote the words for which he is best remembered "Stone walls do not a prison make, nor iron bars a cage" in his poem "To Althea". Reputed to have died in poverty. Died 1657.

Poet Robert Blair
Scottish poet remembered for a single poem, The Grave. Was influential in giving rise to the graveyard school of poetry. Educated in Edinburgh and Holland. Blair was ordained in 1731 and appointed to Athelstaneford, East Lothian. Happily married with six children. The Grave (1743), a long, uneven poem in blank verse, is a reflection on human mortality in mortuary imagery.

Poet Robert Burns
Born 25th January, 1759. Robert Burns was a humanitarian, libertarian and equalitarian. Burns was a collector of the traditional music and songs of rural Scotland. The eldest of seven children born to William and Agnes Burnes. Burns poems, mostly in the Scottish dialect, appeared at Kilmarnock in July 1786 in an edition of 612 copies at three shillings. He published a second edition in April 1787. From 1787 onwards Burns tended to concentrate on songs, collecting and mending the ancient ballads of Scotland. Burns was also a letter writer. Burns also had ambitions to write for the stage. His only work of dramatic merit is The Jolly beggars. Died 21st July, 1796.

Poet Robert Greene
Born 1560, Norwich, England. Was also one of the first professional writers and among the earliest English autobiographers. Degrees at both Cambridge and Oxford. Wrote more than 35 works between 1580 and 1592. The best of his pastorals is "Pandosto" (1588), the direct source of Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale. In his last year Greene wrote exposés of the Elizabethan underworld. Died Sept. 3, 1592, London.

Poet Robert Herrick
The seventh child and fourth son born to a London goldsmith. Educated at the University of Cambridge. In 1629 became vicar of Dean Prior in Devonshire. During the Great Rebellion in 1647 he was deprived of his position because of his Royalist sympathies. Following the restoration of Charles II, Herrick was reinstated where he resided from 1662 until his death. He never married and many of the women mentioned in his poems are thought to have been fictional. His principal work is Hesperides, or, the Works Both Human and Divine of Robert Herrick, Esq. (1648). A group of religious poems printed in 1647 appear within the same book under a separate title page bearing the name His Noble Numbers. The entire collection contains more than 1200 short poems.

Poet Robert Louis Stevenson
Born Edinburgh. Stevenson's grandfather was Britain's greatest builder of lighthouses. Since childhood suffered from tuberculosis. At age sixteen he produced a short historical tale. In 1867 entered Edinburgh University to study engineering. Stevenson changed to law and in 1875 he was called to the Scottish bar. Instead of practicing law, Stevenson devoted himself into writing travel sketches, essays, and short stories for magazines. Stevenson married Fanny Vandegrift in 1880. Gained fame with the adventure story "treasure island", which appeared in 1883. Stevenson's other works are "kidnapped" (1886), "The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde" (1886), "the black arrow" (1888), "master of ballantrae" (1889). Died of a brain haemorrhage on December 3, 1894, in Vailima, Samoa.

Sax Rohmer
Was in fact the pseudonym for "Arthur Henry Sarsfield Ward". Rohmer was born February 15, 1883 in Birminham. His early writings were short stories for magazines and comedy sketches. In 1910, Rohmer published his first novel "Pause!". But he is best known for his "Dr. Fu Manchu" novels. Sax Rohmer died June 1, 1959.

Poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Born October 21, 1772, Devonshire, England. The youngest of fourteen children. Coleridge was a student at his father's school. Later, Coleridge attended Christ's Hospital School in London. Coleridge entered Jesus College, University of Cambridge, in 1791. Coleridge wed in 1795. In 1795 Coleridge befriended William Wordsworth, who greatly influenced Coleridge's verse. Coleridge published his first volume of poetry, Poems on Various Subjects. Later released ten issues of a liberal political publication entitled The Watchman. Coleridge lectured on literature and philosophy, wrote about religious and political theory and spent two years on the island of Malta as a secretary to the governor. In 1817, he published Biographia Literaria. Died in London on July 25, 1834.

Poet Samuel Johnson
Born Lichfield, England, September 18, 1709. Johnson was not a healthy infant. Johnson was scarred from scrofula, and suffered a loss of hearing and was blind in one eye. Attended Oxford, but left for financial reasons. In 1735, Johnson married Elizabeth Porter. In 1737, he went to London as a writer for various periodicals. Johnson wrote his best work in the 50`s, his Dictionary (1755), his Rambler essays (1750-52), his Idler essays (1758-60), and Rasselas, Prince of Abyssinia (1759). His wife died in 1752. Johnson received a government pension in 1762. Died on December 13, 1784.

Sarah Flower Adams
English poet and hymnist. Sarah wrote a number of poems, most were not published until after her death. Sarah Flower was born in Harlow, Essex. She was an early feminists fighting for womens rights. Married William Bridges Adams in 1834. She was a close friend of Shelley, and continued with the increasingly unfashionable ideals of romantic poetry. "Nearer, my God, to Thee" is supposed to have been the hymn the band on the RMS Titanic played when it sank after hitting an iceberg on 14 April 1912. There is, however, a controversy about whether "Nearer, my God ..." was even played on the Titanic that night.

Anna Sewell
Was born March 30, 1820 in Nortfolk. After suffering an accident at age 14 Anna spent her life partially lame. She is best known for her novel "Black Beauty" which has became one of the greatest selling novels of all time. Sewell died April 25, 1878. She never married in her life.

William Shakespeare
Was an English poet, dramatist and actor. He is regarded by many as the greatest English writer of all time. Shakespeare's early life was spent in Stratford upon Avon. At the age of 18 he married to Anne Hathaway. He enjoyed quick recognition as a skilled playwright in London as a member of the Lord Chamberlain's Company. He retired in 1610 having spent a successful career as a writer and heralded by royalty and peasants alike. Shakespeare's privacy resulted in a sketchy timeline of the writer's life, leading many over the years to attempt to fill in the gaps, often with scraps of fact and fiction that only result in nothing close to the truth (A truth we will probably never know). Shakespeare's sonnets give readers a glimpse into the mind and heart of the playwright. Published in 1609, the 154 sonnets involve the author's relationship with various characters, including a striking young man, a mysterious woman, and a rival poet.

George Bernard Shaw
Was born July 26, 1856 in Dublin, Ireland. He was educated at Wesley College, Dublin. His first five novels were rejected before he started to gain success. In 1925, Shaw won the Nobel Prize for Literature. In 1938, Shaw won an Academy Award for "Best Screenplay for Pygmalion". Shaw died November 2, 1950. He was a vegetarian and an active socialist.

Margaret Sidney
was in fact the pen name of Harriet M. Stone. She was born Harriet M. Stone was born June 22, 1844, in New Haven, CT. Margaret Sidney was best known for "The Five Little Peppers and How They Grew" and the eleven follow up novels. She died August 2, 1924. She completed some 30 novels in her life.

Poet Sidney Lanier
Born February 3, 1842, Macon, Georgia. Educated at Atlanta's Olglethorpe College. Fascinated by the writings of Byron, Tennyson, Scott, and other Romantic writers. This fascination eventually led him to a career as a poet and novelist. Lanier served in the Second Georgia Battalion of the Macon Volunteers. He was later captured running blockades between Wilmington, North Carolina, and Bermuda. Released after a year in a prisoner of war camp. Lanier left his beloved Georgia and moved to Baltimore, Maryland, in 1873 to become first flutist with the Peabody Orchestra. Died at age 39 from tuberculosis. Buried at Green Mount Cemetery, Baltimore, Maryland.

Upton Sinclair
Was born September 20, 1878 in Baltimore, Maryland. Sinclair run for California governer in 1934. He was married 3 times. Upton Sinclair died November 25, 1968. He is best known for his novels "The Jungle" and "Boston". During his life he wrote more then 90 novels.

Fyodor Sologub
Was born March 1, 1863 in St. Petersburg, Russia. He grew up in very difficult circumstances when his father died and his mother was forced to work long hours as a servant. His real name was "Fyodor Kuz'mich Teternikov" but he later used Fyodor Sologub as his pen name. He graduated from St. Petersburg Teachers Institute in 1882. For awhile Sologub worked as a teacher before devoting himself completly to writing. Sologub died in 1927 in Leningrad. He was regarded as a important figure in the Symbolist movement. He is best known for his novel, Melkii bes "The Petty Demon".

ohanna Spyri
Was born "Johanna Louise Heusser" on June 12, 1827 in Switzerland. In 1871, Johanna wrote Her first book, "A Leaf on Vrony's Grave". She married Bernhard Spyri in 1852. Johanna Spyri died in 1901. She was best known for her childrens story "Heidi". Spyri spent the later part og her life dedicating herself to charitable causes. In 1951, Her portrait was placed on a postage stamp.

Henry De Vere Stacpoole
Was born April 9, 1863, in Kingstown, Ireland. He attended Portarlington boarding school, Malvern College in London, then studied medicine at St. George's Hospital, University College and St. Mary's Hospital. Stacpoole worked as a ships Doctor for numerous years before becoming a country Doctor. Stacpoole died April 12, 1951. He is best known for writing "The Blue Lagoon" which eventually was adapted as a play and a movie.

Stephen Foster
Born July 4, 1826, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Educated Allegheny Academy, Athens Academy, and Jefferson College. Became a musician in 1850, working for Christy's Minstrels, Campbell Minstrels, and the New Orleans Serenaders. Married to Jane Denny McDowell. Moved to New York City in 1860. Succumbed to alcoholism and poverty, living alone in a Bowery hotel. Died January 13, 1864, in Bellevue Hospital.

Bram Stoker
Was born November 8, 1847, in Dublin, Ireland. Bram served as president of the University Philosophical Society. Stoker worked as the manager of the Lyceum Theatre for 27 years. In 1878, Stoker married Florence Balcome. Stoker is most famous for his noevl, "Darcula". Other novels of Stoker are: The Snake's Pass, The Jewel of Seven Stars, and The Lair of the White Worm. Bram Stoker died April 20, 1912 in London.

Harriet Beecher Stowe
Was born June 14, 1811 in Litchfield, Connecticut. Her birth name was "Harriet Elizabeth Beecher". She studied at Hartford and later became a teacher. In 1836, he married Calvin Stowe. Stowe died July 1, 1896. She is best known for her novel "Uncle Tom's Cabin" and her role as part of the anti-slavery movement.

Edward Stratemeyer
Born October 4, 1862 in Elizabeth, New Jersey. He became well known as a writer and publisher of childrens stories which were published under various pen names. Stratemeyer married Magdalene Baker VanCamp and they went on to have two children. In 1905, He founded the "Stratemeyer Literary Syndicate" emplying a stable of writers to complete his works. Edward Stratemeyer died May 10, 1930. He was the brains behind such classics as the "Hardy Boys", "Nancy Drew", and "Tom Swift". Stratemeyer wrote around 160 books himself and outlined around another 800 more.

Jonathan Swift
Was born November 30, 1667 in Ireland. He studied at Kilkenny Grammar School and Trinity College, Dublin. Ordained as an Anglican priest. In 1710, Swift joined the Tories and wrote political pamphlets. His most famous work is "Gulliver's Travels". Jonathan Swift died October 19, 1745. Swift used a number of pseudonyms including "Isaac Bickerstaff". During his last years Swift was paralyzed and had a brain disorder.

John Millington Synge
Was born April 16, 1871 in Country Dublin. He studied music at the "Royal Irish Academy of Music" and later at the "Trinity College" in Dublin. Most of his works were about his experiences in living in the Aran Islands. John Synge died March 24, 1909. Some of his best works include "The Well of the Saints", "The Playboy of the Western World" and "The Tinker's Wedding".

Newton Booth Tarkington
Was born July 29, 1869 in Indianapolis. Attended Purdue University and Princeton University. Booth was voted most popular man in his class at Princeton. Tarkington died May 19, 1946. He is well known for winning the Pulitzer Prize for "The Magnificent Ambersons" and "Alice Adams". Much of his writings revolved around the clash between High and Middle class America.

Bayard Taylor
Was born January 11, 1825 in Chester County, Pennsylvania. During his early years Bayard worked as an apprentice printer. He then set out travelling the world for some two years after which he published his adventures with success. In 1878, he was appointed as the U.S. minister to Germany. Taylor died December 19, 1878 in Germany.

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