BEAUTY THERAPY

In ancient Egypt, the colour of nail varnish was used to represent social class. In ancient Rome, archaeological evidence shows us that the Romans used a lot of cosmetics. Foundation use to cover up skin imperfections was a greasy liquid substance. It was popular with many woman from ancient Rome to prepare cosmetic recipes with a waxy substance called "Biacca". This was then melted into honey and added to a fatty substance. The production of cosmetics during ancient Rome was usually done by female slaves called "Cosmetae." The first archaeological evidence of colouring of the fingernails dates from 3000BC in China. From around the 1400s to the 1800s, one of the most popular cosmetic practices was whitening the face. But by the 1920s, this was replaced by the tanned skin look which became the popular fashion. The first synthetic dye was created in 1907 by French chemist Eugene Schueller. By the 1930s, lipstick became all the rage, with deeper and deeper reds all the fashion.

Beauty Without Cruelty
Do not test their products on animals. And as an added bonus, Beauty Without Cruelty do not source any of their products from animals. This is ideal for vegans. Beauty Without Cruelty was founded in 1963, in England by the trustees of BWC Charitable Trust, an animal welfare organization. Beauty Without Cruelty entered the United States in 1989. Beauty Without Cruelty products include skin, body, and hair care and a range of colour cosmetics. Highly recommended in the Beauty Without Cruelty range is their moisturizers.

BeautiControl Cosmetics
Products are sold through trained Independent Consultants. BeautiControl specializes in Advanced Anti-aging products, Spa treatments and Personalized skin care products. BeautiControl has more then 140,000 Independent Consultants. BeautiControl started as a subsidiary of Tri-Chem. In the 1980`s, BeautiControl was purchased by Richard W. Heath and his wife, Jinger. BeautiControl was floated to the public in 1986. In 1996, retail sales for BeautiControl were $140 million. In August, 2000, BeautiControl, Inc. became a subsidiary of Tupperware Corporation. BeautiControl products are fragrance-free. They have been dermatologist, ophthalmologist, sensitivity, and allergy tested.

Aesop
Founded in 1987 in Australia by Dennis Paphitis. It was originally called Emeis Cosmetics, but in 1994 changed its name to Aesop. Their packaging is simple and homogenous that resembles medicine type jars and bottles. Aesop has expanded into Asia and opened its first store in London`s, Mayfair's Mount Street in 2008. The Name Aesop is taken from the legendary greek fabulist. The Aesop range extents over fifty skin, hair and body care products. Aesop provides its users with literature about its plant based products.

Ahava
Manufactured by the Dead Sea Laboratories (DSL) which was founded in 1988. Ahava is the Hebrew word for love. Ahava products have proven popular with tourists in Israel. Ahava products are not tested on animals and they adhere to a strict commitment to the ecology. The Dead Sea is called "dead" because basically nothing can actually live there, except some minuscule quantities of bacteria and microbial fungi. It should be noted that there is no reliable research that shows that dead sea minerals have any effect on wrinkes or ageing.

Almay Cosmetics
Originally established in 1931. It was named after the founders, Alfred and Fanny May Woititz. Almay Cosmetics can be traced to when Fanny May Woititz was seeking cosmetic products that would not irritate her sensitive skin. So her husband Alfred, a professional chemist, with the help of dermatologist Dr. Marion Sulzberger, developed the first cosmetic brand that used hypoallergenic ingredients. Almay was the first brand to introduce skincare safety by producing 100% fragrance-free products and showing all the ingredients used on its product labels, and testing for allergy and irritation. Almay also created the first cosmetic line for consumers with specific skin types and those who wear contact lenses. Almay was acquired by Revlon in 1987. The Almay rabge has products for skincare, face, lips and eyes. The natural ingredients used include Meadowsweet (Spirael ulmaria) for oily skin, Grape Seed (Vitis vinifera) for normal skin and Cucumber (Cucumis sativa) for dry skin. Anti-aging ingredient used in products is Story of Moringa (Moringa oleifera}, also known as "The Miracle Tree". Other natural ingredients in the products are Aloe (Aloe barbadensis), Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum), Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Soybean (Glycine max) and Rosehips (Rosa canina).

Aloette
Was founded in 1978. Aloette operates as a franchise system. It is a national business that runs as units operated by franchisees. The company also sells their Aloette products online and on television shopping channels. In 1998, Christie and Bob Cohen purchased the publicly held Aloette. Aloette's direct-sales network has over 10,000 consultants. Although Aloette do not have the range of some of its competitors, they do perform well and are on a par. Aloe vera is a key ingredient in the Aloette skin care line. Aloette does not test its products on animals.

Arbonne
Traced back to 1975 when research and development started in Switzerland. Over the next few years testing took place. But it was not until 1979 that the first formlas were accepted. In 1980, Arbonne UK (United Kingdom) Ltd. and Arbonne International, Inc. were founded. By 1981, the first 15 skin care products were test marketed. Founded in Canada in 1986. Arbonne skin care products are made without dyes. Arbonne offers the possibility to sell their products as an Independent Consultant.

Elizabeth Arden
Was born Florence Nightingale Graham (December 31, 1878 - October 19, 1966). Elizabeth Arden was her business name. She was a Canadian businesswoman who built a cosmetics empire in the United States. In 1912 Elizabeth Arden travelled to France to learn beauty and facial massage techniques used in the Paris beauty salons. She returned with a collection of rouges and tinted powders she had created. Arden introduced modern eye makeup and the concept of the "makeover" in her salons. During World War II, Arden recognized the changing needs of the American woman entering the work force. She showed women how to apply makeup and dress appropriately for careers outside the home. She created a lipstick called Montezuma Red, for the women in the armed forces that would match the red on their uniforms. She began expanding her international operations in 1915, and started opening salons across the world. At the peak of her career, she had a salon in New York, Washington, Boston, Chicago, Beverly Hills, San Francisco, Maine, Arizona, Phoenix, Southhampton, Surfside, Florida, Palm Beach, Philadelphia, Honolulu, Lima. Toronto, Montreal, Melbourne, Sydney, Hong Kong, Singapore, Johannesburg, London, Paris, Zurich, Vienna, Milan, Rome, Cannes, Madrid, Brussels, Copenhagen, The Hague, London, Ontario, Cape Town, Nassau, Tulsa, Quebec, Biarritz. She launched all salons personally. Elizabeth Arden was awarded the Légion d'Honneur by the French government in 1962. Arden died in New York City in 1966. Her company was sold to Eli Lilly and Company in 1971 for $38 million. Eli Lilly and Company sold Arden to Fabergé in 1987 for $657 million. Elizabeth Arden's cosmetics company continues to trade today, and was bought from Unilever in 2003 by FFI, a New York company.

Artistry
A well known brand of skin care and colour cosmetics. Artistry is marketed by direct sales and multi-level marketing in more than 90 countries and territories around the world. Artistry was founded in 1968. The Nutrilite Edith Rehnborg line of cosmetics was adapted and renamed as Artistry. Originally Artistry was only sold in the United States and Canada. By 1987, Artsitry had expended to over 15 countries. In 1998, the Artistry Beauty Institute opened. The Institute is a spa, training center, educational facility and research laboratory all located in the same place. By 2000, the Artisty range included over 400 products.

Aveda
(pronounced ah-vay-da) is a company that manufactures skin care, cosmetics, perfume and hair care products, and trains students in cosmetology, esthiology, and massage. Aveda is Sanskrit for "all knowledge." The company was founded by Horst Rechelbacher in 1978. Horst Rechelbacher grew up in Austria, then shifted to to Rome and London, before moving to the United States in 1963. Horst formulated his first product for Aveda in his kitchen sink. Horst made a trip to India in 1970 where he leant about the healing properties of Ayurveda and aroma. This gave him the vision for Aveda. Rechelbacher sold Aveda to Estee Lauder in 1997 for $300 million, although Aveda continues to be run as a separate entity. In 1990, Aveda opens its first Aveda Spa Retreat in Osceola, WI. Also in 1990, Aveda is part of the 20th Anniversary of Earth Day. Aveda was one of the first beauty companies to endorse a set of environmental principles designed to encourage greater environmental responsibility in business known as The Ceres Principles. In 2004, Aveda was awarded the prestigious Corporate Achievement Award at the Smithsonian-Hewitt National Design Museum.

Aveeno
A well known manufacturer of skin care products in the United States. The history of Aveeno can be traced back to 1945 when its first product, their Soothing Bath Treatment was produced. Development of the treatment was done jointly by the Musher Brothers and the Mayo Clinic. Aveeno is known for its use of active natural ingredients, and has products to treat skin conditions, such as eczema, psoriasis, poison ivy, poison oak, poison sumac, pruritus ani, hives and sunburn. Aveeno is a favorite of those with sensitive and dry skin types. In 1999, Aveeno was purchased by Johnson & Johnson. In 2000, Aveeno launched their Baby line products.

Avon
Avon has markets in more then 135 countries across the world. The company was founded in 1886 by then 28-year-old David H. McConnell who sold books door-to-door and gave out perfume to entice women to buy his books. His perfume were so popular that eventually that is all the women wanted. McConnell, with the help of a local pharmacist blended the original scent himself. He then founded the California Perfume Company (CPC) in New York, New York in a 500 square foot manufacturing and shipping office at 126 Chambers Street. As the company grew, he hired his first female representative, Mrs. P.F.E. Albee. The first product was called the Little Dot Perfume Set. In 1897, McConnell built a small (3000 square foot) laboratory in Suffern, New York. In 1906, the West Coast office in San Francisco was destroyed in the Great Earthquake. In 1914 the first non-US office was opened in the Canadian province of Quebec. The California Perfume Company was incorporated on January 28, 1916 by David H. McConnell and Alexander D. Henderson in Suffern, New York. By 1918, five million units were sold in North America, and by 1928, sales reached $2 million. In October, 1939, the name was changed to Avon Products, Inc. The company was taken public in 1946. By 1954, sales reached $55 million, and the "Avon Calling" advertising campaign introduced. By 1971 the lab would grow into the Avon Suffern Research and Development facility. By 1979, sales reached $3 billion, with one million direct sales agents. Today sales exceed $8 billion worldwide. In 2005 they opened a $100 million dollar 225,000 square foot R&D facility to house its over 300 research and development scientists on the original site in Suffern, NY. Avon is traditionally a direct marketing company. Avon uses both door-to-door sales people and catalogs to advertise its products. In some markets Avon products are sold primarily in retail stores.

BeneFit
Started with its firt store back in 1976 in San Francisco. BeneFit was founded by Jean Danielson and Jane Blackford. BeneFit have a unique feel about their stores which look somewhat like candy stores. They mix a degree of fun with their products along with luxery. Their product names carry a cuteness about them, such as California Kissin, Boo Boo Zap and BADGal Mascara. The standout of their range is their wonderful range of Lipsticks. These days, BeneFit can be found in more then 20 countries around the world. BeneFit allow high quality makeup to be fun again.

Natura Bisse
Was founded in 1979, by Ricardo Fisas Mulleras in Barcelona, Spain. Ricardo Mulleras was a manager of Research Laboratory. He had noticed how soft the hands of the factory workers were. He went on to develop a skin care line that allowed collagen, elastin and keratin to penetrate the skin. Based in Barcelona, Spain, Natura Bisse has slowly spread out to more then 30 countries. Natura Bisse has more then 300 products in their range.

BlissLabs
Can trace its history back to its founder, Marcia Kilgore from Canada. Marcia studied a skin care course which laid the early foundation for the future. Then in 1996 in New York City's SoHo, the first Bliss spa opened. In 1999, Bliss entered into a partnership with Louis Vuitton-Moet-Hennessey. BlissLabs is famous for their like rhythm and blues tunes in their spa. BlissLabs High Thighs Seaweed Task Mask uses guarana, laminaria, extract of horsetail and essential oil of rosemary.

The Body Shop
Has over 2,000 stores in more then 50 countries around the world. The Body Shop is one of the largest cosmetic franchise in the world. The company was founded by the late, Dame Anita Roddick and is known for its vegetable-based products ranging from Body Butter, Peppermint Foot Lotion, and Hemp. The Body Shop has emphasized its support for a wide range of issues around the globe. Its core values are: Against Animal Testing, Support Community Trade, Activate Self Esteem, Defend Human Rights, and Protect Our Planet. The Body Shop carries a wide range of products for the body, face, hair and home. In 1970, Jude Latorre visited the San Francisco Bay Area, and encountered a store on Telegraph Avenue in Berkeley selling shampoos, lotions and body creams. The store, founded by two local entrepreneurs and called "The Body Shop", publicized environmental concerns, and offered customers discounts for bringing in their own bottles instead of using new ones from the store. On 27 March 1976, the first The Body Shop opened at 22 Kensington Gardens, Brighton. There are many stories about the start of the company including how it opened next to an undertaker, who complained to the local council about the name of the store. In response to this opposition, Roddick wrote a letter to the council stating that she was a housewife with children trying to make a living. The original logo and product labels were designed by an art student, Jeff Harris, who was paid £20. The Body Shop experienced rapid growth. The first overseas franchise opened in Brussels. Its stock was floated on London's Unlisted Securities Market in April 1984. In January 1986 it obtained a full listing on the London Stock Exchange. In 1996 The Body Shop launched another shopping channel. 'The Body Shop at Home.' Customers can book a Consultant at no charge to visit their home and demonstrate a range of Body Shop products. In March 2006, The Body Shop agreed to a £652.3 million takeover by L'Oréal. From early on, The Body Shop reflected the activism of its founder through billets posted on shop windows to sponsorship of local charity and community events. In 1986, The Body Shop formed an alliance with Greenpeace, campaigning to "Save the Whales", despite some concerns among franchisees that the head office was becoming too political. By 1990 Roddick had switched allegiances to Friends of the Earth. The Body Shop also promotes values such as Community Trade, reflecting its avowed practice of trading with communities in need and giving them a fair price for natural ingredients or handcrafts they purchase from these often marginalized countries. The Body Shop Foundation supports innovative global projects working in the areas of human and civil rights and environmental and animal protection. It is The Body Shop International Plc's charitable trust funded by annual donations from the company and through various fundraising initiatives. The Body Shop Foundation was formed in 1990 to consolidate all the charitable donations made by the company. The Body Shop was the first international cosmetics company to sign up for the Humane Cosmetics Standard.

Bonne Bell
Founded by Jesse Grover Bell in 1927. Bell was a salesman for a Kansas City cosmetic company, but moved his family to Cleveland, Ohio to start his business. He named the company after his daughter. Bell made his products on a hot plate in his basement. He then sold his skin care products door to door. By the 1950s, Bell had expanded into sun blockers, lip protectors and heavy-duty moisturizers. During the 1960`s, the company sponsored the U.S. Ski Team. By the 1970`s they were also sponsoring marathons and charitable races. Bonne Bell cosmetics have great success in the teenage market and are often featured in teen magazines. The Bonne Bell Company does not use animal testing.

Borghese
Italian Princess Marcella Borghese founded the cosmetics line which is named after her. The Borghese products used fruits and other natural ingredients. Princess Marcella traveled to the United States in 1956 where she met Revlon Founder, Charles Revson. Charles helped her develop her cosmetics line. Ther Montecatini Cosmetic line is named after a spa in the ancient town in Tuscany. It uses the healing properties of the Terme di Montecatini mud and the mineral waters. Ingredients used in Borghese products are listed on the outer packaging of Borghese products. Borghese products are not tested on animals.

store cosmetic counter

Annemarie Lindner
Born in Germany, where during her adolescence she suffered from acne. Nothing seemed to work, till some ten plus years later Annemarie used herbal extracts which cleared her skin. This lead Annemarie to attend cosmetology school where she undertook research into herbs. Annemarie opened her first skin care clinic in 1947. Then in 1951, she started producing her own skin care products. Annemarie later shifted to West Germany where she met Hermann Borner. This meeting eventually lead to the Borlind Company. Annemarie Borlind products use water that comes from a natural spring in the spa region of Germany. Annemarie Borlind products are found in more then 30 countries around the world. Annemarie Borlind products meet the Neuform(German Health Food Industry regulators) standards of purity.

Pevonia Botanica
Founded by husband and wife team, Philippe and dermatologist Sylvie Hennessy, in 1991. The company takes its name from the legendary Peonia flower, later re-named Pevonia. Pevonia Botanica have more then 150 specialized home care products and over 100 professional in-spa treatments. Pevonia Botanica products are ecologically-friendly, environmentally sensitive, fully recyclable and are not tested on animals. The Pevonia Botanica product range is paraben-free. Pevonia Botanica products have a three year shelf life. Pevonia Botanica is sold in more then 80 countries around the world.

Burt's Bees
The history of Burt's Bees started in 1984 in Maine. Burt Shavitz and Roxanne Quimby joined forces to sell candles made from the beeswax. Burt Shavitz owned a honey business. In 1991, Beeswax lip balm is added to the product range. In 1991, Burt's Bees was incorporated. By this time they were already selling more then 500,000 candles a year. In 1993, they moved the company to North Carolina. In 1995 they opened their first retail store in Chapel Hill. In October 1999, Roxanne Quimby bought out Burt Shavitz's share of the company. By 2000 Burt's Bees had more than 100 items in their product range being sold in more then 4,000 outlets. These days, Burt's Bees products can be found in many countries around the world.

Bobbi Brown
Can trace its history back to 1991, when Bobbi Brown with the help of a chemist, released the Bobbi Brown Essentials line of lipsticks at Bergdorf Goodman in New York City. Bobbi Brown was born in 1957 in Chicago, Illinois. Bobbi attended and graduated from Emerson College in Boston with a degree in theatrical makeup. Brown moved to New York City and became a professional makeup artist. In a chance meeting with a chemist, they released the Bobbi Brown Essentials line of lipsticks. The business was so succesful, that in 1995, Estee Lauder bought the company. Bobbi Brown is the author of Bobbi Brown Beauty, Bobbi Brown Teenage Beauty, and Bobbi Brown Beauty Evolution.

Hard Candy
Founded by sisters, Dineh and Pooneh Mohajer and Benjamin Einstein in 1995 in the United States. The first product produced was a blue nail polish called, SKY. It soomed gained wide publicity when actress Alicia Silverstone appeared on the Late Night with David Letterman show where she was asked about her pastel blue fingernails. Her reply was that, "It's 'Sky' by Hard Candy,". The polish was initially sold in L.A.’s most exclusive boutiques. In 1999, Hard Candy was acquired by Louis Vuitton Moët Hennessy (LVMH). These days the Hard Candy line features over 150 beauty staples.

Caudalie Skincare
Goes back to 1993, when in 1993 when two college sweethearts, Mathilde and Bertrand Thomas had a summer job at a winery in Bordeaux, France. It was here the couple met Dr. Vercauteren, a professor of the Pharmacological Faculty of Bordeaux University. After learning about the antioxidant powers of grapes, the couple went on to found the world's leading vinotherapy skincare line. The term, Caudalie, actually refers to the length of time the taste of wine satys in the mouth. One unit of Caudalie is equivalent to one second of length. Caudalie products are not tested on animals. Their skincare creams do not contain colorings or ingredients of animal origin.

Cellex-C
Dates back to 1986, when Lorraine Meisner, an eminent cell biologist at UW-Madison, made the original formula in her kitchen. Lorraine Meisner is a professor of cytogenetics and preventive medicine. Although vitamin C was isolated in 1928, Meisner was a pioneer in the topical application of vitamin C. Meisner and pathologist Dr. Michael Schinitsky conducted clinical trials and double-blind tests, and gained a patent in 1990. The first Cellex=C product went on sale in 1991. It was sold mostly then via mail order. Cellex-C uses L-ascorbic acid as its primary ingredient.

Chanel
A Parisian fashion house created by Coco Chanel. It specializes in haute couture, ready-to-wear, handbags, perfumery, and cosmetics among others. Chanel operates more then 200 Chanel boutiques worldwide. In 1909, Gabrielle Chanel opened a small shop on the ground floor of the Balsan's apartment in Paris. Coco Chanel thn opened at 31 Rue Cambon in Paris in 1910. In 1913, Chanel introduced women's sportswear at her new boutique in Deauville and Biarritz, France. During World War I, Coco opened another larger shop on Rue de Cambon in front of the Hôtel Ritz Paris. In 1921 she introduced her first perfume Chanel No. 5. Earnest Beaux created the fragrance for Coco and she named it after her lucky number 5. Parfums Chanel was founded in 1924 by Pierre Wertheimer to produce and sell perfumes and beauty products. Theophile Bader (founder of the successful French department store Galeries Lafayette) introduced Coco to Wertheimer. Wertheimer retained 70% of Parfums Chanel, while Bader retained 20%, and Coco a modest 10%. As the couture Chanel and Parfums Chanel gained success, business relations between Coco and Pierre deteriated. Coco hired René de Chambrun as her attorney for renegotiating the terms with the Wertheimers but this failed. Chanel returned to Paris in 1953. Coco re-approached Pierre for business advice and financial back-up. In return, he gained complete rights to all products stamped with the name "Chanel." Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel died on January 10, 1971 at the age of 87. In 1974, the House of Chanel launched Cristalle eau de toilette, which was designed when Coco Chanel was alive. In 1981, Chanel launched a new eau de toilette for men, Antaeus. 1996 saw the launch of Allure fragrance and due to its immense popularity, a men's version, Allure Homme was launched in 1998. The House of Chanel launched its first skin care line, PRÉCISION in 1999. 2002 saw the launch of Chance fragrance, with a scent of surprise and glamour.

Chantal Ethocyn
Was first launched in the early 1990`s. The company was founded by Chantal Burnison. Chantal Ethocyn market a range of skin care products based around a patented ingredient called, Ethocyn. Ethocyn was discovered by Dr. Chantal Burnison, a chemist. The company has been through a series of ups and downs in its history. Reviews of the Chantal Ethocyn products have been less than average.

Chantecaille
Launched in 1997. Sylvie Chantecaille has a vast range of experience in the beauty business, having worked for some 20 years for Estee Lauder Corporation. The Chantecaille includes makeup, skincare, bodycare and fragrance. The products use high quality organic ingredients. Chantecaille products are not tested on animals and all are noncomedogenic. Their lip products are fragrance-free.

Clarins
A French cosmetics company that specializes in skincare products and fragrances. The family company was founded by the medical student Jacques Courtin-Clarins in 1954 on the rue Tronchet. His philosophy was that looking and feeling beautiful "is to exist". At the beginning of the 1970s, Clarins Cosmetics started to spread internationally with its first exclusive contracts. The first subsidiary company in the United States was created in January 1981. At the end of 2005, the group has 19 subsidiary companies of distribution in more than 150 countries. The Clarins brand portfolio includes Clarins, Azzaro, My Blend and Thierry Mugler. Clarins also introduced a skin care product range for men (ClarinsMen) has also been launched.

Clearasil
Was invented by Ivan Combe along with the help of chemist Kedzie Teller in 1950 in the United States. In the beginning Combe did not have much luck selling Clearasil to stores, so he gave it to the store owners for free. Store owners responded by ordering the product. Clearasil soon become very popular. Clearasil gained great success after becoming a sponser for the teen popular show on ABC televion, American Bandstand. In 1960, Combe sold Clearasil to Vick Chemical.
In 1975, Wolfman Jack, a famous American radio and television personality, signed a contract to promot Clearasil Acne Ointment. In 1985, Richardson-Vicks and Clearasil were acquired by Procter & Gamble.
In 2000, Clearasil moved to the Boots Group portfolio.
In 2006, Boots Healthcare International was purchased by Reckitt Benckiser.

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Clinique
Launched in 1968 by the Estée Lauder Companies. It was first premiered to the public in August 1968 at Saks Fifth Avenue. Clinique was different to the other cosmetic companies of the time in that its goal was to meet individual skin care needs by categorizing skin types. In 1999, Clinique introduced its first anti-aging line called, "Stop Signs". In 2000, Clinique introduced their, "Anti-Gravity Firming Lift Cream". Clinique products are Allergy Tested and 100% fragrance free.

GM Collin skin care
Founded by Dr. Eugénia Lapinet and Monique Moreau, in 1957 in France. Lapinet was a dermatologist and one of the pioneer`s in the use of collagen pellicules. From 1991, the G.M. Collin dermo-corrective skin care line has been developed and manufactured in Canada by Dermo-Cosmetik Laboratories. G.M. Collin offer some quality well formulated sun screens and moisturizers. They make use of quality botanical, biotechnological and marine ingredients in their product range. G.M. Collin use simple, but attractive packaging for their products. They are not tested on animals and are paraben-free, alcohol-free, and fragrance-free.

Coppertone
Starts back in 1944, when pharmacist Benjamin Green invented a lotion to darken tans. Green actually derived the mixture of cocoa butter and jasmine on his wife’s stove and tested it on his own bald head. Coppertone gained great success in 1953 with the introduction of its, Coppertone girl advertisement. A fire in 1959 destroyed the original artwork. Artist named Joyce Ballantyne Brand re-painted the illustration. In 1993, to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the sunscreen, a pageant was held on the beach of Disney's Polynesian Hotel in Orlando Florida to find a new "The Coppertone Girl".

CoverGirl
cosmetics was first founded in Baltimore, Maryland in 1958 by the Noxzema Chemical Company (later called Noxell). CoverGirl started with skin care products for problem skin. Over time CoverGirl has expanded into a very large product range. The Noxell Corporation was acquired by Procter & Gamble in 1989. CoverGirl has used a number of famous celebrities to promote its products including, Cybill Shepherd, Rihanna, and Drew Barrymore. As part of product promotion, CoverGirl sends samples via the mail and often includes samples in various magazines.

Crabtree & Evelyn
Was founded in Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1973. The symbol used by Crabtree & Evelyn is the the Crabtree or Wild Apple. The Crabtree & Evelyn name gains its inspiration from the renaissance Englishman, John Evelyn, who lived in the 17th century and was noted for his important work in conservation. Crabtree & Evelyn was founded by Cyrus Harvey. It started out as a family-run store in Boston, Massachusetts. These days, Crabtree & Evelyn have a global presence. In 2003, the company opened the Crabtree & Evelyn Tearoom in Stratford-upon-Avon. Crabtree & Evelyn holds the Royal Warrant from HRH the Prince of Wales in recognition of its services as a supplier of fine toiletries.

Darphin
A Paris-based skin care company. The history of Darphin started in 1958 when Pierre Darphin opened his Beauty Institute in Paris, France. Pierre Darphin is a specialist in the sphere of dermatology and developed the Darphin programme known as Haute Couture for beauty. In 2003, Estee Lauder Companies Inc. completed its acquisition of Darphin. Darphin is sold in more then 50 countries around the world.

Dermablend
Can trace its history back to 1981 by American dermatologist Dr. Craig Roberts and his wife Florie Roberts. Dermablend is the United States market leader in corrective makeup. The Dermablend concealers, foundations, and other products can be used to help cover many skin problems including acne scars, rosacea, uneven skintone and birth marks. Dermablend was later acquired by Vichy Laboratoires. Dermablend Cover Crème is fragrance-free, smudge-resistant and waterproof. It is suitable for all skin types. Dermablend Cover Crème lasts up to 8 hours.

Dermalogica
Was founded back in 1986 by professional skin therapist, Jane Wurwand. Dermalogica products are sold in more then 40 countries around the world. Dermalogica does not use artificial colours, synthetic fragrances, lanolin, mineral oil, SD, and alcohol. All Dermalogica products are tested and developed by The International Dermal Institute. Dermalogica was initially developed only for the treatment room. These days Dermalogica offers both a professional line and a retail line.

Sue Devitt Studio Makeup
Founded in September, 2000. Sue Devitt is a world acclaimed makeup artist from Australia. Devitt gains much of her inspiration from the inspiring landscapes of native Australia. Devitt started her career in Paris before moving to New York where she was a creative assistant to François Nars. Later, she was a consultant for Kosé, in Japan, where she created the Awake cosmetics and skin-care line. Sue Devitt products are not tested on animals.

Doctor's Dermatologic Formula
Traces its history back to 1991 when Dr. Howard Sobel founded the HDS Cosmetic Lab. Dr. Howard Sobel himself has been a practicing dermatologist and dermatologic cosmetic surgeon for more than 25 years. In 1995, the name was changed to DDF (Doctor's Dermatologic Formula). The Doctor’s Dermatologic Formula range of products includes skin care and cosmetics in the area of restorative and preventative treatments. In 2007, Doctor's Dermatologic Formula was acquired by Procter and Gamble. Doctor’s Dermatologic Formula has some very impressive products and most certainly some quality sunscreens. Their moisterizers contain some high quality antioxidents and water binding agents.

Dove Skincare
Has a long history that dates back to 1957 with the release of its beauty bar. In fact, the first bar was developed as a treatment for burns and wounds. Further developments of the formula took place before the release of the Dove bar to the retail market. The Dove beauty bar was different in that it did not dry the skin the way that soaps do. Over the years Dove have expanded their range to include moisturizing body wash, face care, shampoos and conditioners and more beauty products. Dove launched a wonderful advertising campaign aimed at real women called, "Campaign for Real Beauty". The campaign featured regular everyday women, not models. Dove has been active in the cummunity supporting numerous female empowerment programs via the Dove Self Esteem Fund.

Bare Escentuals
Started off with its own stores. It eventually progressed to home shopping. Bare Escentuals started in the San Francisco Bay Area. Leslie Blodgett took over the company in 1994. By 1997, Leslie started selling bare Minerals via infomercials and shopping channels. Until 2006, it was called STB Beauty before changing it to Bare Escentuals Inc. Bare Escentuals is free of any preservatives, fillers, or binders. Bare Escentuals operates more then 300 privately owned boutiques. bare Minerals won the 2006 Glamour Magazine’s award and Teen Vogue Reader’s Choice for best foundation in 2007.

Fashion Fair Cosmetics
Made its debut in September 1973, at Marshall Field’s in Chicago. The idea for the product range came from John H. Johnson, publisher of EBONY and JET magazines. Johnson originally approached cosmetics companies about the idea, but they were not interested. So John and his wife Eunice, took their idea to a private lab. A mail-order package called the Capsule Collection was developed and proved popular. From there, Fashion Fair Cosmetics was born. These days Fashion Fair Cosmetics are sold in more the 1,000 stores around the world.

Gatineau
Was founded in Paris in 1937 by Madame Jeanne Gatineau. The first beauty Salon opened that year in Paris. Madame Jeanne Gatineau was a physiotherapist and chiropodist. By 1950 the business had expanded to opening the Jeanne Gatineau Beauty School in Paris. Gatineau is credited with being was the first skincare house to develop exfoliants and slimming creams. Gatineau has a research laboratory and production plant in Bezons, France.

Glymed Plus
Has been around for more then 20 years and has over 100 products in their range. Glymed Plus uses antioxidants with certified organically grown botanicals and pharmaceutical quality crystalline hydroxy acids in their products. Glymed Plus was founded by Christine Heathman, a Medical Master Esthetician, CME, LMT. Christine has practiced clinical esthetics for more then 25 years. Whatever your skin type, GlyMed Plus offers a range that can meet each individuals specific skin care needs. The GlyMed Plus Age Management line uses quality alpha hydroxy acid formulations for exfoliation, treatment and skin renewal. GlyMed Plus Skin Treatment and Camouflage Kit includes a 16-shade camouflage palette.

Elizabeth Grant
Was founded in 1958 in England by Elizabeth Grant. But it was some ten years earlier that Elizabeth had discovered her secret formula, Torricelumn. Elizabeth Grant skin care soon grew from a home-based business to a global corporation. At one stage in its history Elizabeth Grant retired and the company closed, only to re-open again in Toronto in 1997 with just two products. These days the Elizabeth Grant product range includes anti-aging products, moisturizers, cleansers, toners, and sun care products. Aside from the secter formula, Torricelumn, Elizabeth Grant products may also include vitamins, proteins, botanicals, and anti-oxidants. The company does not offer the public a a full ingredient list of their products making any review of their products difficult.

Guerlain
One of the oldest perfume houses in the world. Perfumes by Guerlain are sometimes said to have been inspired by the scent of confections, as a result of a common vanilla and amber accord in many of their fragrances. This unique attribute is often referred to as "Guerlinade". In 1921, a perfume by the same name was launched by Guerlain. Since its foundation in 1828 Guerlain has created more then 300 fragrances. The House of Guerlain was owned and managed by members of the Guerlain family from 1828 to 1994. The House of Guerlain was founded in 1828, when Pierre-François Pascal Guerlain opened his perfume store on 42, rue de Rivoli in Paris. As both the founder and first perfumer of the house, Pierre-François composed and manufactured custom fragrances with the help of his two sons, Aimé and Gabriel. Through continued success and the patronage of members in high society, Guerlain opened its flagship store at 15, rue de la Paix in 1840, and put its mark on the Parisian fashion scene. The success of the house under Pierre-François peaked in 1853 with the creation of Eau de Cologne Impérial. This perfume earned Pierre-François the prestigious title of being His Majesty's Official Perfumer (France), which lead him to create perfumes for Queen Victoria of England and Queen Isabella of Spain, among other royalty. With the death of Pierre-François in 1864, the house was left to Aimé Guerlain and Gabriel Guerlain. The roles of perfumer and manager were divided between the two brothers, with Gabriel managing and further expanding the house, and Aimé becoming the master perfumer. As such, the House of Guerlain began a long tradition where the position of master perfumer was handed down through the Guerlain family. As Guerlain's second generation in-house perfumer, Aimé was the creator of many classic compositions, including Fleur d'Italie (1884), Rococo (1887) and Eau de cologne du coq (1894). Many would argue that his greatest composition was Jicky (1889). The business was handed down to the sons of Gabriel Guerlain: Jacques Guerlain and Pierre Guerlain. Jacques became Guerlain's third master perfumer in line; he was the author of many Guerlain classics, which are still held in high esteem in the modern perfume industry. Most of his perfumes are still sold and marketed today. Among Jacques Guerlain's most famous and popular creations are Eau du Coq (1894), Après L'Ondée (1906), L'Heure Bleue (1912), Mitsouko (1919), and Guerlain's flagship fragrance Shalimar (1925). Jacques Guerlain also composed Vol de Nuit (1933) as a tribute to Antoine de Saint-Exupéry and Air France. Ode (1955), a floral perfume similar to the likes of Joy by Jean Patou, was the last perfume composition by Jacques Guerlain. The composition of Ode was helped by his grandson, the then-18-year-old Jean-Paul Guerlain. Jean-Paul Guerlain created Guerlain's classic men's fragrances Vétiver (1959) and Habit Rouge (1965); the latter is considered by many to be the first male oriental fragrance. He also created Nahéma (1979), Jardins de Bagatelle (1983), and Samsara (1989), as well as Héritage and Coriolan in the 1990s. Following the acquisition of Guerlain by LVMH in 1994, perfumers outside of the family have been hired to compose perfumes for Guerlain: Jicky (1889): Said to be named after a girl who broke Aimé Guerlain's heart as a student in England; it proved to be a great success in its time of creation, and remained popular ever since.
Après L'Ondée (1906): Meaning "After the Heavy (Summer) Shower", Après L'Ondée is reminiscent of bitter almonds and wet stones. Its composition includes iris, violet, rose, hawthorne and hesperedic notes.
L'Heure Bleue (1912): Meaning "The Blue Hour", L'Heure Bleue is perfume with the dusky scent of candies and almond cake bought in an old world apothecary.
Mitsouko (1919): Named after the heroine of the novel "La Bataille" by Claude Farrère, Mitsouko is said to herald the ending of World War I.
Shalimar (1925): Named after the garden in Lahore, built by Shah Jahan in memory of his wife. Guerlain's creations have long influenced the trends of perfumery with fragrances such as Jicky, Shalimar, and Vétiver. Guerlain is among the few older houses (such as Caron) that exist solely to produce and market perfumes. (Nowadays this includes a range of makeup and skincare products.) Many brands in the perfume industry, such as Chanel, Jean Patou and Gucci, are in fact divisions of fashion houses, which produce perfumes as part of a broader range of products.

Karin Herzog
Was founded and developed by Dr. Herzog and his wife Karin Herzog. Dr. Paul Herzog was the inventor of the artificial respiration system and honoured by the Nobel Institute. Karin Herzog is a qualified esthetician. Karin Herzog skincare products are made in Switzerland to the highest standards. They are not tested on animals. Their medical-grade oxygen skin care products allow the skin to breath. Karin Herzog oxygen skincare increases natural levels of oxygen in the skin helping it to function better and increase the rate of cell renewal.

Ole Henriksen
Was born in Nibe in North Jutland, Denmark. Henriksen obtained a degree in cosmetic chemistry in London. In 1975, he founded the Ole Henriksen Face/Body on Sunset Blvd in Los Angeles. The Ole Henriksen product range has been designed to be simple, effective and safe for use by all skin types. In 1999, Ole launched his skin care line to the retail market around the world. He is the Author of a number of books including, "Ole Henriksen's Seven Day Skin Care Program" and "Wellness for Men". His products were voted one of the top brands of skincare by the Gala Spa Awards in Germany. An Honorary Award was bestowed on Ole Henriksen in recognition of his diverse contributions to the industry by The Danish Beauty and Cosmetics Awards.

Illuminaré
Was founded and developed by Ruthie Molloy. Ruthie Molloy was a physical therapist and make-up artist. What Ruthie has developed is the first full line of Liquid Mineral Makeup in the world. The product is high quality at a fair price. For those that are looking for sun protection in their skin care, Illuminaré is a good choice. Illuminaré have high quality performance sun protection ingredients in each of the products. Illuminaré have done the range of FDA regulation testing for SPF, Skin Sensitivity, Photo Toxicity, Water Resistance, etc. The Illuminare liquid mineral foundation is an all in one, foundation, sunscreen and concealer that includes real SPF 21 and UVA/UVB protection.

Lip Ink
Was founded and developed by Rose Nichols. She started developing her products way back in 1991 in her kitchen. Finally in 1995 she founded her company. Consumers will be pleased to know that Lip Ink products are 100% organic and handcrafted in small batches. Their herbal botanical color blends are preservative free and naturally antiseptic. Another pleasing factor is that their products also include Vitamins E, C, B-5 (panthenol), trace minerals and UVA and UVB protection. Rose Nichols is a member of the ICMAD, and the Society of Cosmetic Chemists.

Liz Earle
Skin care was co-founded in 1995 by friends Liz Earle and Kim Buckland. They originally met in 1980 where they both worked at beauty product group Molton Brown. Liz Earle has appeared on TV, workee as a beauty editor, and is the author of over 30 books. Kim Buckland had a background in the management and marketing of cosmetics. Together, they formed a strong team. They gained success and by 1996 their skin care range was launched on the TV home shopping channel, QVC. In 2001 they opened a shop in Ryde. They opened their London shop in 2006. Their online shopping website went live in 2002.

Jane Iredale
Started back in 1994. It was founded by Jane Iredale. Before founding her cosmetic company, Jane had a long history of working in television, film and theatre. Jane Iredale's mineral makeup is formulated from pure micronized minerals and pigments. The Jane Iredale range contains no oil, no talc, no perfume, no alcohol, no chemical additives or artificial dyes. Her water-resistent formulas offer coverage for skin of every type and color. Jane Iredale Mineral Cosmetics are especially good for those with sensitive skin.

Jane
An acronym for the botanical ingredients that are found in most of their cosmetics, aloe, elder, juniper and nettle. Jane Cosmetics was founded in 1994 and has grown to become one of the most popular brands in the market today among its target market of young women. Jane cosmetics offers a range of more then 250 shades of color. Estee Lauder took control of Jane Cosmetics in 1997. Jane cosmetics are not tested on animals and are oil free. Janes, Be Pure Mineral make up line is fragrance free, talc free, oil free and wax free.

Jurlique
Was founded by Jurgen Klein and his wife Ulrike. Jurgen Klein is a chemist and a horticulturist. Jurlique have been developing their beauty products since 1985. The plants and flowers used to create the Jurlique products are grown and harvested from their certified organic and biodynamic farms in South Australia. More then 50 different varieties of flowers and plants grown on the Jurlique farms include calendula, lavender, marshmallow, rose, sandalwood, and more. Each plant is hand picked. Jurlique has stores around the world including Australia, United States, Japan and more.

Johnson & Johnson
Traces its history back to Robert Wood Johnson, who joined brothers James Wood Johnson and Edward Mead Johnson to create a line of ready-to-use surgical dressings in 1885. By 1886 they had produced their first products. Robert Wood Johnson was the first president of the company. Then in 1910, he was succeeded by his brother James Wood Johnson. In 1932, by his son, Robert Wood Johnson II. By the 1920`s, Johnson & Johnson had expanded into consumer products. During the 1920s, they introduced the BAND-AID®, Brand Adhesive Bandages. Johnson & Johnson created a separate division for surgical products in 1941 which became Ethicon. It expanded into pharmaceuticals with the purchase of McNeil Laboratories, Inc., Cilag, and Janssen Pharmaceutica. Johnson & Johnson is one of the founding sponsors of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. The corporation includes some 250 subsidiary companies with operations in over 57 countries. Its products are sold in over 175 countries.

Kiehl's
Can trace its history all the way back to 1851 when it was founded in New York City's East Village by John Kiehl. Irving Morse bought Kiehl's in 1921 and turned it into a full-service pharmacy. But by the 1960`s the business focus had shifted to skin and hair care products. In 2000, Kiel`s was aquired by L'Oréal. Kiehl`s still occupies the original site it had way back in 1851. Family photographs adore it`s walls. Over the years, Kiehl's has built a solid reputation. It`s staff are some of the best in the industry and are well regarded for the time they will spend with each customer.

Kinerase
A very gentle skin care system. Many of the Kinerase products use "kinetin", a herbal extract. It is kinetin that is known to keep plant leaves moist. Kinerase started back in 1999. It is non-prescription and often sold by dermatologists. Kinerase skin care is available in cream or lotion formulations. The Blue Flower that is featured in Kinerase advertisements is a blue anemone.

Neutrogena
Had its beginnings back in 1930 when its founder Emanuel Stolaroff, founded a cosmetic company called Natone. Natone started out as a supplier to beauty salons. While Stolaroff was on a business trip in Europe in 1954, he discovered a soap developed by Dr. Edmond Fromont. The soap was special in that it returned the skin to its normal pH, just one minute more than if it had been washed with only plain water. Stolaroff imported and distribute the Neutrogena soap in the United States. By 1962, the company name was officially changed to Neutrogena Corporation. The company went public in 1973. By 1980, Neutrogena had expanded into the haircare market. Neutrogena products are distributed in more than 70 countries around the world.

La Mer
Has an inspiring history in that it was developed by aerospace physicist Dr. Max Huber. Huber had suffered severe chemical burns when a lab experiment exploded in his face some 40 years ago. He spent 12 years conducting some 6,000 experiements to develop Crème de la Mer. La Mer which was founded in 1995, is now sold in more than 30 countries around the world. Some of the ingredients with the creme include calcium, eucalyptus, iron, lecithin, magnesium, potassium, Vitamins C, E and B12, oils of citrus, wheat germ and sunflower. The business was bought ny Estee Lauder in 1996.

Lancaster
Founded in 1946 by Georges Wurz, an industrialist, and Dr. Eugene Frezzati, a chemist. The business was named after the, Lancaster Bomber. The Lancaster factory was then opened in Monaco in 1948. After originally being sold in the French Market, Lancaster soon spread to other European countries. Lancaster was purchased in 1966 by Beecham. In 1970, the principality palace designated Lancaster the appointed supplier of Her Serene Highness Grace of Monaco. In 1990, Benckiser aquired Lancaster. In 1998, Lancaster launched their full makeup range.

Lancôme Paris
A leading international manufacturer and marketer of perfume, cosmetic, and skin care products. The company began in 1935, when its founder, Armand Petitjean was exploring the ruins of a castle, Le Château de Lancosme, while vacationing in the French countryside. Petitjean's inspiration for the company's symbol, a golden rose, were the many wild roses growing around the castle. Petitjean was a student of Francois Coty. Lancôme launched its first five fragrances in 1935 at the World's Fair in Brussels. The fragrances were: Tendre Nuit, Bocages, Conquete, Kypre and Tropiques. Lancome expanded its business into makeup and skincare products. One noteworthy product was Nutrix launched in 1936. Lancôme launched the Océane line in 1955, which contained ultra-pure enriched with trace elements and algae seaweed. These days Lancôme has a large range including anti-aging, blushes, cleansers, concealers, exfoliators, moisturizers, night treatments, powders, sun protection and more.

L'Oréal
Located in France, is the largest cosmetics company in the world. It traces its history back to 1907, when chemist Eugène Schueller developed a hair-colour formula which he sold to hairdressers. By 1909, Schueller had registered his company, "Société Française de Teintures Inoffensives pour Cheveux", which soon became, L’Oréal. The company expanded at a rapid rate and by 1920 its products were sold in more then 15 countries. In 1928 the company took control of soap company Monsavon. These days L’Oréal markets over 500 brands and thousands of individual products.

Ellen Lange
A trained skin care specialist who came from a family of plastic surgeons. In 1996 Ellen founded her own skin care line, Ellen Lange Skin Science. Her products were developed and tested at her families medical facility. Ellen Lange does have some very good moisturizers which contsin some very good water binding agents and antioxidents. The Retexturizing Peel kit was selected, Best of Beauty, by Allure Magazine.

Erno Laszlo
Born July 11, 1897 in Hungary. Laszlo attended the Royal Hungarian Elisabeth University of Medical Sciences in Budapest, Hungary where he studied skin pathology and skin disease. He completed his clinical studies in Berlin, Germany. Laszlo soon after stated develping his own skin care products. Erno Laszlo gained national fame after Princess Stéphanie of Belgium used one of his skin preparations. After that, women from all ranks of society wanted to see Laszlo for skin and make-up advice. Laszlo opened his first institute in Budapest in 1927. In 1939, Laszlo moved to New York. On November 3, 1939, the New York Herald Tribune reported that the Erno Laszlo Institute, specializing in beauty treatments and cosmetics, had leased a floor in a building on 677 Fifth Avenue, Manhattan. Later, Helena Rubenstein attempted to buy his business, but he declined. Laszlo became a United States citizen in 1945. The Erno Laszlo Institute was aimed at the rich, famous and powerful. Among his clients were the Duchess of Windsor and the Duke of Windsor Gloria Vanderbilt, Doris Duke, Greta Garbo, Lilian Gish, Audrey Hepburn, Yul Brynner, Hubert de Givenchy, and Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis. In 1966 Erno Laszlo entered the retail marketplace, with partner Chesebrough-Ponds, which later bought the Erno Laszlo Institute. In 1995, the company Erno Laszlo had founded was bought by Mana Products from Elizabeth Arden.

Estée Lauder
One of the world's leading manufacturers and marketers of skin care, cosmetics, perfume and hair care products. The company started in 1946, when Joseph Lauder and wife Estée Lauder began producing cosmetics in New York City, New York. At first, they only had four products: super rich all purpose cream, creme pack, cleansing oil and skin lotion. Two years later, they established their first department store account with Saks Fifth Avenue in New York. Over the next fifteen years, they expanded the range and continued to sell their products in the United States. In 1960, the company went international. Its first international account was in the London department store Harrods. The following year, it opened an office in Hong Kong. In 1964, they started Aramis Inc., which produced fragrances and grooming products for men. In 1967, Estée Lauder was rewarded for her efforts by being named one of ten Outstanding Women in Business in the United States by business and financial editors. This was followed by a Spirit of Achievement Award from Albert Einstein College of Medicine at Yeshiva University in 1968. In that year, the company expanded again, opening Clinique Laboratories, Inc. Clinique was the first dermatologist guided, allergy tested, fragrance free cosmetic brand created by Estée Lauder. Estée Lauder became the first women's cosmetic company to introduce a second line for men when, in 1976, they began a separate line of skin supplies. named "Lab Series". In 1981, the company achieved another breakthrough when their products became available in the Soviet Union. Estée Lauder now sells its products in department stores across the world, as well as having a chain of freestanding retail outlets. The Estée Lauder Companies’ annual Breast Cancer Awareness Campaign involves all of the 18 brands that make up The Estée Lauder Companies. They collectively represent The Breast Cancer Research Foundation’s first corporate supporter. Estée's daughter-in-law was the creator of BCRF's signature pink ribbon. Over $10 million has been raised for The Breast Cancer Research Foundation since 1993. Estee Lauder was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Estee Lauder made the 1988 Time Magazine’s list of The 20 Most Influential Business Geniuses of the 20th Century.

L'Occitane Cosmetics
Emphasizing its French origins, L'Occitane en Provence portrays an image of a beautiful, sun filled French countryside. The history of L'Occitane en Provence can be traced back to 1976 when literature student, Olivier Baussan, purchased a steam distiller and started producing rosemary oil which he sold in the street markets. The first L'Occitane boutique opened in Volx in 1980. L'Occitane means "the woman from Occitania". Occitania is the region these days know as Provence. The original name, L’Occitane, was eventually changed to, L'Occitane en Provence, in the late 1990`s. L'Occitane has a dtrong history of being a socially responsible company. They introduced Braille labeling on most of their packaging in 1997. L'Occitane state they never test their products on animals. L'Occitane also guarantee that none of their products are produced using child labour. L'Occitane en Provence has over 500 shops worldwide, with many of them located in airports.

Lumene
gets its name from the blue Lake Lummenne in Kuhmoinen in the Finnish Lake District. Lumene has a long history of being one of Finland's most trusted cosmetic brands. Lumene use raw materials from the Arctic wilderness in their products. LUMENE Group develops, manufactures and sells skin care, color cosmetics and hair cosmetics. Lumene uses berry seed oils and pine tree extracts found in the Finnish Lapland. None of Lumene products are tested on animals.

Lush Cosmetics
More than 500 stores in 43 countries around the world. Lush opened their first store in 1994. Lush produce and sell fresh hand-made products such fresh face masks, soaps, bath ballistics, hand, hair and body lotions & treatments. Lush can be traced back to the 1970s when Mark Constantine and Elizabeth Weir founded a company named Constantine & Weir. By 1988, Constantine had started a new company called "Cosmetics to Go". Sadly, the business eventually closed. Later in 1994, they sent a catalog to all previous Costmetics to Go customers that included a contest for a customer to come up with a new name. The winner of the contest chose, "LUSH". Lush sells its products through its stores and through direct mail order. Lush lists their product ingredients. Ingredients are listed in descending order of quantity used in making the product. Many products are labeled with a use-by date. Lush fosters environmental awareness and use organic fruit and vegetables, essential oils and safe-synthetic ingredients in all products produced. In addition to not using animal fats in their products, they are also against animal testing and perform tests solely with volunteers instead.

MAC Cosmetics
Founded in 1984 in Toronto, Canada, by Frank Toskan and Frank Angelo. MAC were first sold in the United States through the Henri Bendel department store. MAC opened their first standalone store in the United States in 1991, in Greenwich Village. In 1994, Estée Lauder took a controlling interest in MAC Cosmetics. Then in 1998, they took full control of the company. MAC Cosmetics use high profile celebrity endorsement to promote their products. In 1994, the MAC AIDS fund was founded to support men, women and children living with HIV/AIDS globally. These days, MAC Cosmetics is sold in more then 50 countries around the world.

Trish McEvoy
Was founded in 1975 in the United States. The product range includes cosmetics, makeup kits, brushes, perfumes and they also offers skin care services. Trish got into the cosmetic industry at an early age when she gained her first job at the Estee Lauder cosmetics counter in Virginia at just 18. By 1978, Trish McEvoy and husband, dermatologist Ronald Sherman, had co-founded a skin care center in New York. Trish is the Author of the book, "The Power of Makeup". Trish McEvoy was awarded the Distinctive Beauty Award from the Cosmetic Executive Women trade organization.

Mary Kay
Founded by Mary Kay Ash on September 13, 1963. The company went public in 1968. But in 1985, Ash took the company private through a leveraged buyout. Previous to launching her own company, Mary Kay worked selling products for other companies. Kay had worked selling for Stanley Home Products and World Gift. In 1989, Mary Kay attempted to take control of Avon Products, but was unsuccessful. By 1993, Mary Kay had became a Fortune 500 company. These days Mary Kay has some 200 products in their range which sells in more then 25 countries around the world.

Maybelline
Traces its history back to 1913 when it was created by New York chemist T.L. Williams. The first product he produced and sold was called Lash-Brow-Ine. Because the product was inspired from his sister Maybell, he re-named it Maybelline. In 1932, Maybelline produced a special 10 cent package of Maybelline mascara. In 1967, the company was sold by T.L. Williams to Plough, Inc. The entire cosmetic production facility was moved from Chicago to Memphis over one week-end. In 1975 the company moved its factory to Little Rock, Arkansas. In 1990, Schering-Plough sold Maybelline to a New York investment firm, Wasserstein Perella. Maybelline Operational Headquarters remained in Memphis until being sold in 1996, when headquarters moved to New York City. During 1991, the company adopted the advertising slogan, "Maybe She's Born With It. Maybe It's Maybelline." In 1996, the company was acquired by L'Oréal.

Max Factor
Founded in 1909 by Max Factor, Sr. He was a make-up artist for the Russian royal ballet. Factor emigrated to the United States in 1904. Max Factor died at the age of 59 in Beverly Hills, CA in August 1938. Max Factor was purchased by Procter & Gamble Co. in 1991. During the 1920s and 1930s, Max Factor became associated with the world of movie make-up. He created the first makeup for the movies in 1914, and coined the term "makeup", based on the verb, "to make up" (one's face). Jean Harlow, Claudette Colbert, Bette Davis, Norma Shearer, Joan Crawford and Judy Garland were regular customers of the Max Factor beauty salon, located near Hollywood Boulevard. Max Factor's name appeared on many movie credits, and Factor himself appeared in some cameos. Many of Max Factor's celebrity clients appeared, at no cost, in beautiful full page, color magazine ads to promote Max Factor cosmetics. Some of his innovations were the first motion picture makeup in 1914, Lip Gloss in 1930, Pan-Cake Makeup, forerunner of all modern cake makeups in 1937, Pan-Stik Makeup in 1948, Erace, the original cover-up cosmetic in 1954, and the first "waterproof" makeup in 1971.

Laura Mercier
At a young age Laura Mercier> studied makeup application at the Carita School in France. Mercier made the move to New York in 1985 where she joined the team in the launch of American Elle. Later on Laura gained a four year contract with Elizabeth Arden designing the makeup looks for their advertising campaigns. Mercier also took part in Chanel`s beauty advertising campaigns in France. Laura Mercier Cosmetics was founded by Janet Gurwitch and Gary Kusin in 1996. Laura helped develop Laura Mercier Cosmetics. The line which includes skincare, bath and body and fragrance lines is available in more then 20 countries around the world.

MD Formulations
Was founded in 1983 by cosmetic skin specialist Dr Patric Bowler. At the time, MD Formulations offered glycolic acid based AHA products that were ahead of its time. They backed up their products with extensive research and development. MD Formulations use to be called MDF Acquisitions Corporation, but changed its name to Bioceutix, Inc. in 2000. Later it changed its name to MD Formulations. In 2001, MD Formulations merged with Bare Escentuals. If you are in the market for some AHA skincare products, then MD Formulations is a must.

Murad
Was founded back in 1989 by Howard Murad. M.D. Murad gained a strong following from infomercials featuring its founder Dr. Howard Murad. Howard Murad studied at The Arnold and Marie Schwartz College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, and the University of California, Irvine Medical School. Later, he joined the service as a general medical officer for the United States Army. He was awarded the bronze star for his service during the Vietnam War. He is highly regarded for his work in aesthetic products formulated with Alpha Hydroxy Acids (AHAs). Murad is sold in more then 40 countries around the world. Murad is active in the community supporting numerous charities and social organizations. The Murad Employee Charity Day program offers employees one paid day off a month to perform volunteer charity work of their choice. Murad does not test on animals.

Jason Natural
Can trace its history back to 1959 when it was founded by Jeffrey Light in Los Angeles, California. The Jason Natural product range extends to over 200, and offers them as an affordable price to the consumer. Their prodcts have a high emphasis on using natural ingredients and many are loaded with antioxidents. Their moisturizers are exceptional and contain high levels of antioxidents. Their product formulations use botanicals, herbs, plants, roots, proteins, vitamins, and minerals. Jason Natural also have a range of baby care products including shampoo, body wash and baby powder. Their product range includes body care, skin care, hair care, men’s care, baby care, hand care, sun care, women’s health, deodorants and lip care. Jason Natural can mostly be found in natural health stores and organic supermarkets.

NeoStrata
Founded in 1988 by Ruey Yu, PhD, OMD, a dermatopharmacologist, and Eugene Van Scott, MD, a dermatologist. During the early 1970's, both Ruey Yu and Scott, did extensive research into alpha hydroxyacids (AHAs). They co-authored the first published scientific paper on use of AHAs in skin care. These days NeoStrata holds more then 100 patents on AHAs and related technologies. Some NeoStrata products are sold only to dermatologists and plastic surgeons. Other NeoStrata pruducts are available in beauty stores, spas, and department stores. The NeoStrata Exuviance product line is for normal to more sensitive skin types. The NeoStrata CoverBlend is a line of makeup products that conceals skin conditions on both the face and body.

Neways
Was founded in 1992 by Thomas and Leslie D. Mower in Salem, Utah. Thomas Mower was a research scientist and during the 1970s he and his wife founded a commercial chemical company called Nubrite. Neways has more than 500,000 distributors around the world. Neways have more then 300 products in their range. Their products range from cosmetics to nutritional supplements to household. These days Neways has a presence in more then 20 countries around the world. In 2006, Neways was acquired by Golden Gate Capital.

Nivea
A global skin- and body-care brand. The company started in 1911 when Beiersdorf developed a water-in-oil emulsifier as a skin cream with Eucerit, the first stable emulsion of its kind. The company's owner, Oskar Troplowitz, named it Nivea, from the Latin word niveus/nivea/niveum (meaning snow-white). During the 1930s, Beiersdorf began producing products such as tanning oils, shaving creams, shampoo and facial toners. The trademark "Nivea" was expropriated in many countries following World War II. Beiersdorf completed buying back the confiscated trademark rights in 1997. Internationalisation during the 1980s propelled the Nivea brand to a wider global market. In 1882 Pharmacist Carl Paul Beiersdorf establishes the company. The date of the patent document for the manufacture of medical plasters is taken as the date of the company’s formation. Carl Paul Beiersdorf produces gutta-percha plasters in his laboratory on the basis of his patent, laying the foundations for modern plaster technology. By 1890, Pharmacist Dr. Oskar Troplowitz had taken over the company. In 1892 the first international cooperation agreement is concluded with US trading company Lehn & Fink for the USA. The first overseas branch is established in London in 1906. In 1909 Labello is launched on the market. It is the first lip care product in sliding tube packaging. In 1911, NIVEA Creme, the first stable water-in-oil emulsifier is introduced. The emulsifying agent Eucerit is made from lanolin, found in sheep's wool, and is the key to NIVEA Creme's unique properties. 1918: The deaths of Oskar Troplowitz and his partner Otto Hanns Mankiewicz result in the formation of a stock corporation (limited company) on June 1, 1922. In 1924, Nivea remodelled its cream in a blue tin with a white logo. The next year NIVEA is relaunched in blue packaging. The distinctive blue and white tin starts its successful history. At the end of the Second World War, a majority of the Hamburg production plants and administrative buildings have been destroyed. Most of the affiliates and the international trademarks in almost all countries, in particular in the USA, UK and the Commonwealth, and France, are lost. The company Beiersdorf has to start again virtually from scratch. In 1955 a new protective hand cream is launched on the market under the name of atrix. 1963: NIVEA milk , liquid NIVEA Creme in the form of a water-in-oil emulsion is introduced "for all-over body care". In 1982 there is a steady expansion of NIVEA as a brand for skin and body care through a large number of subbrands with an international focus. In 1990 the JUVENA brand is aquired, then the acquisition of the la prairie brand in 1991.

Merle Norman
Started way back in the 1920s when Merle Nethercutt Norman started developing her products in her kitchen. In 1931, Merle, with help from her nephew, J.B. Nethercutt, opened her first Studio in Santa Monica, California. Merle Norman was the first in the indistry to use the "Try Before You Buy" slogan. She also started the "Before and After" makeover. These days, her products are sold through around 2,000 independently owned and operated Merle Norman Cosmetic Studios. In 1972, Merle Norman passed away. Throughout the years, Merle Norman has remained a family owned business.

Noxzema
Was invented way back in the early 1900`s by Dr. Francis J. Townsend. The original formula was called "Townsend R22" or sometimes the "Miracle Cream of Baltimore". Townsend later on gave the formula to a Dr. George Bunting, who denied the transaction for a number of years. In 1917 the Noxzema Chemical Co. was founded. By 1920 the Noxzema Chemical Company factory had opened in Baltimore. In 1925 Noxzema produced an amazing 900,000 little blue jars of Noxzema. During the 1950s, Noxzema extended their range to include personal care products. In 1966, the company changed its name to Noxell Corporation. Procter & Gamble acquired the brand in 1989. Alberto-Culver bought the rights to the brand in 2008.

Nu Skin
Founded in 1984, in Provo, Utah, USA by Nedra Dee Roney and Blake M. Roney. Later they were joined by Brooke Roney, Sandie Tillotson and Steve Lund. Blake Roney had graduated with a business finance degree from Brigham Young University (BYU). Nu Skin started with just eight products. The core principle of the new business was, "All of the Good, None of the Bad." In 1992, Nu Skin introduced a line of nutritional products. In 1996, the company went public when it listed on the New York Stock Exchange. Nu Skin has more then 800,000 independent distributors of their products, and is sold in more than 40 countries around the world.

Olay
A brand based around facial moisturizer skin care products. Olay began life in South Africa as oil of Olay. Graham Wulff, an ex-Unilever chemist from Durban, started it in 1949. The name Oil of Olay was chosen by Wulff as a spin on the word lanolin, a key ingredient. It was unique in the early days because it was a pink fluid rather than a cream, packaged in a heavy glass bottle. Wulff and his marketing partner Jack Lowe had tested the product on their wives and friends and were confident in its uniqueness and quality. Olay’s marketing was also unique, since it was never described as a moisturizer, nor even as beauty fluid. Nowhere on the packaging did it say what the product actually did. Print adverts used copy such as Share the secret of a younger looking you and talked about the ‘beauty secret’ of oil of Olay. Other adverts were written as personal messages to the reader from a fictitious advice columnist named Margaret Merril. They ran in Readers’ Digest and newspapers and often looked like editorials. Wulff and Lowe, who ran the company under the banner of Adams National Industries, did not sell the product to the trade, but waited for pharmacies to ask for it based on consumer requests. As the company began to market the product internationally, it was decided to modify the name of the product in each country so it would sound pleasing and realistic to consumers. This led to the introduction of oil of Ulay (UK), oil of Ulan (Australia) and oil of Olaz (Netherlands and Germany). In 1970, ANI opened a test market in USA (Chicago), and was expanding into northern Germany. In 1999, it was decided to unify the brand under a global name. Thus, Oil of Ulan and Ulay became Olay on a worldwide basis, except in German-speaking regions, where it remained Oil of Olaz. In the Netherlands, it was renamed just Olaz. Richardson Merrell Inc (later Richardson-Vicks Inc) acquired ANI in Nov 1970. RVI was acquired by Procter & Gamble in 1985. P&G greatly expanded Olay both in line up and in countries. Since then, the range has been expanded to include a full range of hypoallergenic variants, cleansers and creams with the aim of meeting the full range of skincare needs, whatever the user's age or skin type. The brand also includes soap, and body wash. Olay Cosmetics was launched in 1996 but discontinued in 2001. The Olay brand has expanded into a range of other products grouped in boutiques including Complete, Total Effects, Regenerist, Quench (North America), White Radiance (Asia) and Olay Vitamins (USA).

Black Opal
Started in 1994 by BioCosmetic Research Labs. Black Opal was designed to meet the needs of African American women. Black Opal cosmetics and skin care was developed with the consultation of dermatologist Dr. Cheryl Burgess. All Black Opal cosmetics are hypoallergenic and non-comedogenic. Black Opal is available in a wide selection of skin perfect shades. Black Opal Products can be used by both men and women.

Aubrey Organics
The beginnings of Aubrey Organics can be traced back more then 40 years age to its founder Aubrey Hampton. These days Aubrey Organics has produced more then 200 different products and is sold around the world. They set a milestone by becoming the first personal care manufacturer to be certified as an organic processor by the Quality Assurance International of San Diego, California, in 1994. Aubrey Organics have been listing every single ingredient on their beauty products long before the FDA required it. Aubrey Organics and its founder Aubrey Hampton, have been strong opponents of animal testing and Aubrey Organics products carry the "leaping bunny" logo which is an internationally recognized symbol for "cruelty free" cosmetics. Aubrey Hampton is also the Author of a number of books related to the cosmetic and beauty industry.

Oriflame
They sell their products in over 60 countries around the world. The history of Oriflame started back in 1967 in Stockholm, Sweden. It was founded by brothers, Jonas and Robert af Jochnick and then partner, Bengt Hellsten. The business focused on natural ingredients and the image of Sweden. Within a few months they were already seling their product via direct-selling. Within the first year, Oriflame had expanded into Denmark. Oriflame has more then one million independent Sales Consultants. Oriflame has a range of more then 800 cosmetic products.

Origins
A leading skin, body and hair care provider that was founded in 1990. Origins have built a reputation of quality. Where possible, Origins use Certified Organic ingredients. Their products are sold throughout more then 25 countries worldwide. Farmers who grow for Origins use emphasize the use of renewable resources. Origins has a long history of supporting charity. They have given large donations to the Breast Cancer Research Foundation, Seraa Wildlife Conservancy, Gorilla Conservation Programs, Project Sunshine and others. Origins is a strong supporter of our enviroment and their manufacturing facilities have instituted Environmental Management Systems that comply with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

Orlane Paris
Was founded in 1946 by Jean d'Albret He originally started out by selling perfume, but eventualy expanded into high end skin-care products. Orlane products come with very sleek packaging which probably suits the high end price range they are asking. The name "Orlane", gets its inspiration from the character of Dutchess of Guermantes in Remembrance of Things Past. In 1968, Orlane released its B21 cream to celebrate its 21st anniversary. Orlane offer some quality anti-ageing skin care products for the customer.

Osmotics
Founded back in August, 1993 by husband Steven and wife Francine. Their vision was to create new abd advanced cosmeceutical treatments for the skin and hair. The first product was a Vitamin C patch to minimize wrinkles. By 2005, they had launched a pharmaceutical division. The Osmotics line includes, anti-agers, body care, cleansers, toning mists, exfoliartors, hair care, moisturizers, and sun protection products. Osmotics has founded a scientific advisory board and all new products are developed with advice from the group. Osmotics does not test their products on animals.

Parthena
Was founded in 1994 by Francesca Milano and Jorge Castellanos. They originally started the business with just four products. By mid-1997, Parthena had become part of the "The Home Shopping Network" (HSN).

Perfect Potion
Can trace its history back to 1991 when it was founded by Carolyn Stubbin and Salvatore Battaglia. The stores are unique and have an enjoyable feel when browsing. Founder Salvatore Battaglia holds qualifications in aromatherapy, acupuncture, herbal medicine and natural therapies and has authoured, "The Enchanting Art of Aromatherapy", and "The Complete Guide to Aromatherapy. Founder Carolyn Stubbin is a herbalist, aromatherapist and beauty therapist and the author of "Do It Yourself Skin Care". Perfect Potion were first Australian company to comply with the German BDIH standards for natural skin care. Perfect Potion have been active in the cummunity supporting organizations such as Amnesty International, Australian Koala Foundation and the Wilderness Society.

Pharmagel
Was founded in 1987. They are a producer of high quality, pharmaceutical grade, anti-aging skin care. Pharmagel products have no animal ingredients and are not tested on animals.

Phytomer
Founded way back in 1971 in Saint Malo, France, by Jean Gedouin, and has become a leader in marine cosmetology. Over the years the Phytomer chemists have have researched the rich nutrients of the sea in their development of their products. Botanicals, vitamins, plants, vitamins, mineral salts, amino acids and oligo elements from the sea are all a part of the Phytomer product line. Phytomer products are sold in more then 70 countries around the world. Phytomer is also an active community member working to reintroduce endangered seaweed species back to its natural environment.

Pola
Was founded in 1929, in Shizuoka, Japan by Shinobu Suzuki. The company actually gets its name from the late movie star, Pola Negri. POLA Chemical Industries, Inc. is formed in 1940. By 1946, POLA Cosmetics, Inc. is founded. Pola was founded in the United States in 1960. Pola operates state-of-the-art manufacturing facilities in Japan. In 2004, the Pola Fukuroi Plant in Shizuoka, Japan recieved the Prime Minister Award for promoting the community with green environmental awareness. In 2007, the company changed its name from Pola Cosmetics, Inc. to POLA, Inc. Since 1973, POLA U.S.A., Inc. has been an active member of the Direct Selling Association (DSA).

La Prairie
Has a long history that traces back to the renowned Clinique La Prairie, which was founded in 1931 in Switzerland. Clinique La Prairie was founded by Dr Paul Niehans. La Prairie is a high end beauty treatment and a pioneer in anti-aging treatments. La Prairie is only sold through very select outlets. La Prairie offers the consumer some excellent moisterizers and their facial sunscreens include avobenzone which is excellent for UVA protection. La Prairie skin care products work to help slow down the signs of aging. Their cellular treatments deliver age-fighting nutrients essential to the health and structure of your skin. The La Prairie Anti-Aging Complex works to help prevent moisture loss, retard cellular deterioration and boost collagen production.

Revlon
Founded in 1932 by Charles Revson, his brother Joseph, and chemist, Charles Lachman. They started with just a single product which was a new type of nail enamel. They developed a unique manufacturing process using pigments instead of dyes. Revlon developed a variety of new shades of opaque nail enamel. Successful in salons from the start, by 1937 Revlon started selling the polishes in department stores and drug stores. By 1940, Revlon offered an entire manicure and lipstick line. During World War II Revlon created makeup and related products for the U.S. Army, which was honored in 1944 with an Army-Navy Award for Excellence. Originally Revlons magazine ads were drawn by hand and mostly in black and white. But starting in 1945, Revlon began launching stunning, full-color, photographic advertisements in major magazines and stores across the country. In 1950, Revlon introduced a red lipstick and nail enamel called "Where's the Fire?" In November 1955, Revlon went public. The IPO price was $12 per share, but reached $30 per share within 8 weeks. In the 1960s, Revlon Inc was divided into different divisions, each focusing on a different market. The company had begun to market its products overseas at the end of the 1950s. By 1962, when Revlon debuted in Japan. In 1970 Revlon acquired the Mitchum line of deodorants. In 1973, Revlon introduced Charlie, a fragrance designed for the working woman's budget. In 1973, model Lauren Hutton signed the first exclusive modeling contact ever. She agreed to pose for Revlon's Ultima line for $400,000 for two years. On November 5, 1985 Revlon was sold to Pantry Pride (later renamed to Revlon Group, Inc.), a subsidiary of Ronald Perelman's MacAndrews & Forbes Holdings. Beginning in 1987 ads lasting until 1991, fashion photographer Richard Avedon began shooting the top fashion models in the world (as well as lesser known ones) for the advertising campaign "The Most Unforgettable Women in the World Wear Revlon". Eventually Revlon shifted focus to female movie stars.

Paralumun New Age Village

Qi Li
With more then 20 years experience in the beauty industry Qi Li has provided Paralumun with an in depth look at the beauty industry with this article on beauty therapy.

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