AUGUST IN HISTORY

AUGUST 1

1664 The Turkish army is defeated by French and German troops at St. Gotthard, Hungary.

1689 James II's 15-week siege of Londonderry, Ireland, ends in failure. It was a shaken and demoralized English column that returned to its northern Irish base at Newry on the evening of May 28, 1595.

1740 Thomas Arne's song "Rule Britannia" is performed for the first time.

1759 British and Hanoverian armies defeat the French at the Battle of Minden, Germany.

1914 Germany declares war on Russia.

1939 Synthetic vitamin K is produced for the first time.

1954 The Geneva Accords divide Vietnam into two countries at the 17th parallel.

AUGUST 2

47 BC Caesar defeats Pharnaces at Zela in Syria.

1589 During France's religious war, a fanatical monk stabs King Henry II to death.

1819 The first parachute jump from a balloon is made by Charles Guille in New York City.

1914 Germany invades Luxembourg.

1965 Newsman Morley Safer films the destruction of a Vietnamese village by U.S. Marines.

1990 Iraqi forces invade neighboring Kuwait.

AUGUST 3

1492 Christopher Columbus leaves Spain on his voyage to the new world.

1692 French forces under Marshal Luxembourg defeat the English at the Battle of Steenkerke in the Netherlands.

1911 Airplanes are used for the first time in a military capacity.

1914 Germany declares war on France.

1967 President Lyndon B. Johnson announces plans to send 45,000 more troops to Vietnam.

AUGUST 4

1717 A friendship treaty is signed between France and Russia.

1789 The Constituent Assembly in France abolishes the privileges of nobility.

1914 Germany invades Belgium causing Great Britain to declare war on Germany.

1942 The British government charges that Mohandas Gandhi and his All-Indian Congress Party favor "appeasement" with Japan.

AUGUST 5

1762 Russia, Prussia and Austria sign a treaty agreeing on the partition of Poland.

1858 The first transatlantic cable is completed.

1914 The first electric traffic signal lights are installed in Cleveland, Ohio.

1962 Actress Marilyn Monroe dies under mysterious circumstances.

AUGUST 6

1890 William Kemmler becomes the first man to be executed by the electric chair.

1942 The Soviet city of Voronezh falls to the German army.

1945 Enola Gay drops the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan.

AUGUST 7

1966 The United States loses seven planes over North Vietnam.

1973 A U.S. plane bombs a Cambodian village killing 400 civilians.

AUGUST 8

1306 King Wenceslas of Poland is killed.

1648 Ibrahim, the sultan of Istanbul, is assassinated.

1786 Jacques Balmat and Dr. Michael-Gabriel Baccard become the first men to climb Mont Blanc in France.

1876 Thomas Edison patents the mimeograph.

1899 The first household refrigerating machine is patented.

1937 The Japanese Army occupies Beijing.

1940 The German Luftwaffe attacks Great Britain for the first time.

1945 The Soviet Union declares war on Japan.

1974 President Richard Nixon resigns from the presidency as a result of the Watergate scandal.

AUGUST 9

48 BC Julius Caesar defeats Gnaius Pompey at Pharsalus.

1549 England declares war on France.

1859 The escalator is patented.

1945 A second atomic bomb is dropped on Nagasaki, Japan.

AUGUST 10

1557 French troops are defeated by Spanish army at St. Quentin, France.

1582 Russia ends its 25-year war with Poland.

1779 Louis XVI of France frees the last remaining serfs on royal land.

1846 The Smithsonian Institution is established in Washington through the bequest of James Smithson.

1911 The House of Lords in Great Britain gives up its veto power, making the House of Commons the more powerful House.

AUGUST 11

1906 In France, Eugene Lauste receives the first patent for a talking film.

1916 The Russia army takes Stanislau, Poland, from the Germans.

1972 The last U.S. ground forces withdraw from Vietnam.

AUGUST 12

1687 At the Battle of Mohacs, Hungary, Charles of Lorraine defeats the Turks.

1762 The British capture Cuba from Spain.

1898 The Spanish American War officially ends after three months and 22 days of hostilities.

1908 Henry Ford's first Model T rolls off the assembly line.

1961 The erection of the Berlin Wall begins, preventing access between East and West Germany.

1977 Steven Biko, leader of the black consciousness movement in South Africa, is arrested.

AUGUST 14

1457 The first book ever printed is published by a German astrologer named Faust.

1793 Republican troops in France lay siege to the city of Lyons.

1917 The Chinese Parliament declares war on the Central Powers.

1945 Japan announces its unconditional surrender in World War II.

1947 Pakistan becomes an independent country.

AUGUST 15

1261 Constantinople falls to Michael VIII of Nicea and his army.

1760 Frederick II defeats the Austrians at the Battle of Liegnitz.

1864 The Confederate raider Tallahassee captures six Federal ships off New England. Popular during the Crimean War, the floating battery was revived by hard-pressed Confederates.

1872 The first ballot voting in England is conducted.

1947 Britain grants independence to India and Pakistan.

AUGUST 16

1513 Henry VIII of England and Emperor Maximilian defeat the French at Guinegatte, France.

1777 France declares a state of bankruptcy.

1780 American troops are defeated by the British at the Battle of Camden, South Carolina.

1914 Liege, Belgium, falls to the German army.

1977 Elvis Presley dies.

AUGUST 17

1812 Napoleon Bonaparte's army defeats the Russians at the Battle of Smolensk. during the Russian retreat to Moscow.

1943 Allied forces complete the conquest of Sicily.

1987 93-year-old Rudolf Hess, former Nazi leader and deputy of Hitler is found hanged to death in Spandau Prison.

1988 Pakistani President Zia-ul-Haq is killed in an airplane crash suspected of being an assassination.

AUGUST 19

1587 Sigismund III is chosen to be the king of Poland.

1692 Five women are hanged in Salem, Massachusetts after being convicted of the crime of witchcraft.

1934 38 million Germans vote for Adolf Hitler.

1957 The first balloon flight to exceed 100,000 feet takes off.

AUGUST 20

1741 Danish navigator Vitus Jonas Bering discovers America.

1913 French parachutist Adolphe Pegond becomes the first person to jump from an airplane and land safely.

1914 Russia wins an early victory over Germany at Gumbinnen.

1940 Radar is used for the first time, by the British during the Battle of Britain.

AUGUST 21

1129 The warrior Yoritomo is made Shogun without equal in Japan.

1794 France surrenders the island of Corsica to the British.

1915 Italy declares war on Turkey.

1959 Hawaii is admitted into the Union.

1996 The new Globe theater opens in England.

AUGUST 22

1485 Henry Tudor defeats Richard III at Bosworth.

1642 Civil war in England begins as Charles I declares war on Parliament at Nottingham.

1911 The Mona Lisa, the famous painting by Leonardo da Vinci, is stolen from the Louvre in Paris, it is recovered in 1913.

1983 Benigno Aquino is gunned down at Manila Airport.

AUGUST 23

1821 After 11 years of war, Spain grants Mexican independence as a constitutional monarchy.

1926 Film star Rudolph Valentino dies, causing world-wide hysteria and a number of suicides.

1944 German SS engineers begin placing explosive charges around the Eiffel Tower in Paris.

AUGUST 24

79 Mount Vesuvius erupts destroying Pompeii.

1572 More then 50,000 people are put to death in the ‘Massacre of St. Bartholomew,’ on orders of Charles IX of France.

1780 King Louis XVI abolishes torture as a means to get suspects to confess.

1891 Thomas Edison files a patent for the motion picture camera.

1954 In a blow to democracy congress outlaws the Communist Party in the United States.

AUGUST 26

1017 Turks defeat the Byzantine army at Manikert, Eastern Turkey.

1429 Joan of Arc makes a triumphant entry into Paris.

1883 The Indonesian island of Krakatoa erupts in the largest explosion recorded in history.

AUGUST 27

1776 The Americans are defeated by the British at the Battle of Long Island, New York.

1813 The Allies defeat Napoleon at the Battle of Dresden.

1912 Edgar Rice Burrough's Tarzan of the Apes first appears in a magazine.

1916 Italy declares war on Germany.

1979 Lord Mountbatten is killed by an I.R.A terrorist bomb.

AUGUST 28

1941 The German U-boat U-570 is captured by the British and renamed Graph.

1944 German forces in Toulon and Marseilles, France, surrender to the Allies.

AUGUST 30

1721 The Peace of Nystad ends the Second Northern War between Sweden and Russia.

1932 Nazi leader Hermann Goering is elected president of the Reichstag.

AUGUST 31

1919 The Communist Labor Party is founded in Chicago, USA, with the motto, "Workers of the world unite!"

1942 The British army under General Bernard Law Montgomery defeats Field Marshal Erwin Rommel's Afrika Korps in the Battle of Alam Halfa in Egypt.

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