ART HISTORY

In Latin, Art means "skill" or "craft". But this we may say is a broad definition of art. In the modern use of the word art we commonly understood it to be the skill and technique that is used to produce an aesthetic result or object. In history, before the the 13th century in Europe, artists were seen to belong to the lower caste. These days art is seen as a high-status activity that is often associated with wealth.

The exact origins of art history are unknown, but sculptures and paintings from the upper paleo-lithic starting roughly 40,000 years ago have ben discovered. Much of early Art History can be found in the major ancient civilizations of China, Egypt, Greece, Mesopotamia, Rome and India. These civilizations also kept records on art and how the artists worked. During the Byzantine and Gothic art periods of the Western Middle Ages, art focused on the expression of Biblical forms. The western Renaissance showed us art based on the material world. The emphasis in Indian art was on painted sculptures and dance. Chinese art emphasized bronze work, jade carving, pottery and calligraphy. The western Age of enlightenment in the 18th century showed us new directions in art history again. This lead to the Romantic art period that showed us the emotional side and individuality of people. The late 19th century brought with it a whole range of art movements from symbolism to fauvism.

Pre-historic Art:
The earliest figurine discovered was in Morocco dating between 500,000 and 300,000 BC, during the Middle Acheulean period. The finding in France of the Mask of La Roche-Cotard, suggests Neanderthal man may have developed a form art tradition. Archeological evidence of art found in Japan, suggests the Jomon people were the first to develop pottery sometime in history around the 11th millennium BC. Mesolithic statues of Lepenski Vir at the Iron Gate, Serbia and Montenegro date to the 7th millennium BC. Megalithic monuments found in the British isles date to the 5th millennium BC. The bushman rock paintings in South Africa have been dated to the period 8000 BC.

Surrealism Art
Derives much of its meaning from the theories of Dr. Sigmund Freud. The images in surrealism, are as confusing as those in dreams. Surrealism Artists included: Max Ernst, Salvador Dalí, Andre Masson, Rene Magritte. Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early-1920s, and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members. The works feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur; however many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost with the works being an artifact, and leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was above all a revolutionary movement. From the Dada activities of World War I Surrealism was formed with the most important center of the movement in Paris. From the 1920s on it spread around the globe, eventually affecting the visual arts, literature, film, music, and video games of many countries and languages, as well as political thought and practice and philosophy and social theory.

Romanticism Art
1800 - 1880. In many ways it can be said that interests in far away lands and travel fueled Romanticism. It was a reaction against Neoclassicism. Romanticism has bold brush strokes and rich colors. Romanticism artists included: Goya, Delacroix, Theodore Gericault and Caspar David Friedrich. Romanticism is a complex artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the Industrial Revolution. It was partly a revolt against aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature, and was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature. The movement stressed strong emotion as a source of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as trepidation, horror, and the awe experienced in confronting the sublimity in untamed nature and its qualities that are "picturesque", both new aesthetic categories. It elevated folk art and custom, as well as arguing for a "natural" epistemology of human activities as conditioned by nature in the form of language, custom and usage.

Baroque
In the arts, Baroque is a period as well as the style that dominated it. The Baroque style used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music. The style started in Rome, Italy and spread to most of Europe. The word "Baroque" originally comes from the Portuguese word meaning "irregularly shaped pearl". Baroque Style: First appeared in Europe in the late 1500`s. It remained the dominant style until the 1700`s. Baroque art was heavily characterized by elaborate displays of grandeur. Baroque artists included Rubens, Velazquez, Caravaggio and Rembrandt.

Conceptual Art
An art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns.

Abstract Expressionism
The term "Abstract Expressionism" was coined by Robert Coates in the New Yorker in 1936. It was an American post-World War II art movement. It was the first specifically American movement to achieve worldwide influence. Although the abstract expressionist school spread quickly throughout the United States, the major centers of this style were New York City and California, especially the San Francisco Bay area. Abstract Expressionism does not actually describe a particular style, but more the attitude. Abstart Expressionism artists included: Gorky, Pollock, de Kooning. Abstract Expressionism has many stylistic similarities to the Russian artists of the early twentieth century such as Wassily Kandinsky.

History Of Sculpture
To understand the History Of Sculpture we must first understand what is defined as sculpture. Sculpture is three-dimensional artwork created by shaping hard or plastic material, commonly stone (either rock or marble), metal, or wood. Some sculptures are created directly by carving; others are assembled, built up and fired, welded, molded, or cast. A person who creates sculptures is called a sculptor. Because sculpture involves the use of materials that can be molded or modulated, it is considered one of the plastic arts. The majority of public art is sculpture. Many sculptures together in a garden setting may be referred to as a sculpture garden. Types of sculpture
Free-standing sculpture, sculpture that is surrounded on all sides, except the base, by space. It is also known as sculpture "in the round," and is meant to be viewed from any angle.
Jewelery
Relief - the sculpture is still attached to a background; types are bas-relief, alto-relievo, and sunken-relief
Site-specific art
Kinetic sculpture - involves aspects of physical motion
Fountain - the sculpture is designed with moving water
Mobile (see also Calder's Stabiles.)
Statue - representationalist sculpture depicting a specific entity, usually a person, event, animal or object
Bust - representation of a person from the chest up
Equestrian sculpture - typically showing a significant person on horseback
Stacked art - a form of sculpture formed by assembling objects and 'stacking' them. Materials of sculpture through history
Sculptors have generally sought to produce works of art that are as permanent as possible, working in durable and frequently expensive materials such as bronze and stone: marble, limestone, porphyry, and granite. More rarely, precious materials such as gold, silver, jade, and ivory were used for chryselephantine works. More common and less expensive materials were used for sculpture for wider consumption, including hardwoods (such as oak, box/boxwood, and lime/linden); terra cotta and other ceramics, and cast metals such as pewter and zinc (spelter). Many sculptors seek new ways and materials to make art. Jim Gary used stained glass and automobile parts, tools, machine parts, and hardware. One of Pablo Picasso's most famous sculptures included bicycle parts. Alexander Calder and other modernists made spectacular use of painted steel. Since the 1960s, acrylics and other plastics have been used as well. Andy Goldsworthy makes his unusually ephemeral sculptures from almost entirely natural materials in natural settings. Some sculpture, such as ice sculpture, sand sculpture, and gas sculpture, is deliberately short-lived. Sculptors often build small preliminary works called maquettes of ephemeral materials such as plaster of Paris, wax, clay, or plasticine, as Alfred Gilbert did for 'Eros' at Piccadilly Circus, London. In Retroarchaeology, these materials are generally the end product.

France: 1907 - 1920's. Cubism was a 20th century garde art movement that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music and literature. The name "Cubism" comes from after an insult by artist "Henri Matisse" when he called a painting by Georges Braque, "petits cubes". Analytical Cubism: 1908 - 1912. Synthetic Cubism: 1912 - 1914. Cubism is a painting of a normal scene but painted so that it is viewed from multiple views while the positions of some of the parts are rotated or moved so that it is odd looking and scrambled. In cubist artworks, objects are broken up, analyzed, and re-assembled in an abstracted form — instead of depicting objects from one viewpoint, the artist depicts the subject from a multitude of viewpoints to represent the subject in a greater context. Cubism was a response against realism in Impressionism. Cubism Artists include: Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque.

Post-Impressionism
The artistic style that followed Impressionism. The term was coined by British art critic, "Roger Fry". Post-Impressionists looked for new ways of expressing colour. Post-Impressionist artists included: Vincent van Gogh, Paul Cezanne, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Paul Gauguin. Post-Impressionism is the term coined by the British artist and art critic Roger Fry in 1910, to describe the development of European art since Manet.

Romanesque Art
In Western Europe was strong around 800 A.D. to late 1200 A.D. In many ways, Romanesque art reflected the religious and political climate of the era. Romanesque buildings were designed for defense. Romanesque architects developed stone vaulted buildings which replaced the highly flammable wooden roofs of pre-Romanesque structures. Romanesque cathedrals were built in the shape of a Latin cross. Romanesque paintings often took the form of church murals. Romanesque art refers to the art of Western Europe from approximately 1000 AD to the rise of the Gothic style, which rose in the 13th century or later, depending on region. The study of medieval art began in the early nineteenth century when historians, following their peers in the natural sciences in an effort to classify their field of inquiry, coined the term "Romanesque" to encompass the western European artistic production, especially the architecture, of the 11th and 12th centuries. The term is both useful and misleading. Medieval sculptors and architects of southern France and Spain had firsthand knowledge of the many Roman monuments in the region, lending legitimacy to the term "Romanesque." However, "Romanesque Art" is not a return to classical ideals. Rather, this style is marked by a renewed interest in Roman construction techniques. The twelfth-century capitals from the cloister of Saint-Guilhem-le-Désert, for example, adopt the acanthus-leaf motif and the decorative use of drill holes, which were commonly found on Roman monuments. Likewise, the contemporary apse of Fuentidueña uses the barrel vault, widely used in Roman architecture. While emphasizing the dependence on "Roman art," the label ignores the two other formative influences on Romanesque art, the Insular style of Northern Europe and Byzantine Art, nor does it do justice to the innovative nature of Romanesque art.

Dada Art
1916 - 1922. "Dada" is a French word for "hobbyhorse". Dada or Dadaism is a cultural movement that began in neutral Zürich, Switzerland, during World War I and peaked from 1916 to 1920. The movement primarily involved visual arts, literature (poetry, art manifestoes, art theory), theatre, and graphic design. A nonsensical art movement that basically ridiculed those who came before them. Dada Artists Included: Man Ray, Marcel Duchamp, Francis Picabia. The movement influenced later styles, movements, and groups including Surrealism, Pop Art and Fluxus.

Pre-Raphaelites
In 1848, a group of young artists rebelled against the style of art taught at the Royal Academy. These artists formed a secret society called "The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (PRB)". Pre-Raphaelites used bright colors painted on a white canvas. Many artists Addopted the Pre-Raphaelites style but were not actually members of the brotherhood. The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was founded by artist and poet Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Other Pre-Raphaelites included: Sir John Everett Millais, Ford Maddox Brown and William Dyce.

Renaissance Art
The period was strong from around 1400 to 1600. The Renaissance started in Italy, then spread throughout northern Europe. Early Renaissance: 1420 to 1500. High Renaissance: 1500 to 1530. Oil paint was used for the first time. Artists of the Renaissance included, Raphael, Titian, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Hans Holbein, and Pieter Brueghel. Renaissance painting bridges the period of European art history between the art of the Middle Ages and Baroque art. Painting of this era is connected to the "rebirth" (renaissance in French) of classical antiquity, the impact of humanism on artists and their patrons, new artistic sensibilities and techniques, and, in general, the transition from the Medieval period to the Early modern age.

Realism
Started during the 1800s due to the effects of the Industrial Revolution that caused many social and economic problems. Realism portrayed subjects in a more straightforward manner. Realist artists included: Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, Courbet, Daumier, Gustave Courbet and Francois Millet. Realism in the visual arts and literature is the depiction of subjects as they appear in everyday life, without embellishment or interpretation. The term is also used to describe works of art which, in revealing a truth, may emphasize the ugly or sordid. Realism often refers to the artistic movement, sometimes called naturalism, which began in France in the 1850s. The popularity of realism grew with the introduction of photography - a new visual source that created a desire for people to produce things that look objectively real. Realists positioned themselves against romanticism, a genre dominating French literature and artwork in the late 18th and early 19th century. Undistorted by personal bias, Realism believed in the ideology of objective reality and revolted against exaggerated emotionalism. Truth and accuracy became the goals of many Realists.

Neoclassicism
Was strong around the late 1700`s to the mid-1800`s. Archeological discoveries in Greece and Rome and a rise in classical thought revived interest in Neoclassicism art style. Neoclassicism sometimes appears cold and lifeless. Neoclassical artists included Jacques-Louis David, Antonio Canova and Bertel Thorvaldson. Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw upon Western classical art and culture (usually that of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome). These movements were dominant during the mid 18th to the end of the 19th century. This article addresses what these "neoclassicisms" have in common.

Futurism Art
Early 1900s: Italy and Russia. Futurism was a largely Italian and Russian movement although it also had adherents in other countries. The name "Futurism", came from Italian poet, "Filippo Tommaso Marinetti". Futurism was in many ways the celebration of the machine age. Futurism Artists Included: Carlo Carra, Umberto Boccioni, Gino Severini. The Futurists explored every medium of art, including painting, sculpture, poetry, theatre, music, architecture.

Gothic Art
Gothic art was strong around 1100 A.D. to 1400 A.D. It began in France out of the Romanesque period in the mid-12th century, concurrent with Gothic architecture found in Cathedrals. By the late 14th century, it had evolved towards a more secular and natural style known as International Gothic, which continued until the late 15th century, where it evolved into Renaissance art. The primary Gothic art mediums were sculpture, panel painting, stained glass, fresco and illuminated manuscript. Gothic art was known for its arched design of churches and stained glass. Gothic sculpture was used to decorate the doorways of cathedrals and often showed figures and scenes from the Bible's Old Testament. There was a Gothic Revival in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Ansel Adams
Born: February 20, 1902, San Francisco, USA.
Adams was best known for his black and white photographs of California's Yosemite Valley. He had his first acknowledged photograph in 1927. Winner of three Guggenheim grants to photograph the national parks. Adams founded the f/64 group with Edward Weston, in 1932. Died: April 22, 1984. Adams also authored numerous books about photography, including his trilogy of technical instruction manuals.

Aubrey Beardsley
Born: Brighton, England, 1872. Beardsley was aligned with the Yellow Book coterie of artists and writers. He was an art editor for the first four editions and produced many illustrations for the magazine. He was also closely aligned with Aestheticism, the British counterpart of Decadence and Symbolism. Beardsley was the art editor of the Yellow Book in 1894-95. He illustrated for the Savoy magazine in 1896. Died of tuberculosis in 1898. Aubrey Beardsley was the most controversial artist of the Art Nouveau era, renowned for his dark and perverse images and the grotesque erotica.

Georges Braque
Born: May 13, 1882. Studied at the local art school in Le Havre. He went to Paris in 1900 where he studied at the Académie Humbert, Ecole des Beaux-Arts in the studio of Léon Bonnat. His earliest works were impressionistic, but after seeing the work exhibited by the Fauves in 1905 Braque adopted a Fauvist style. Braque had a close association with Picasso. Beginning in 1909, Braque began to work closely with Pablo Picasso who had been developing a similar approach to painting. Both artists produced paintings of neutralized color and complex patterns of faceted form, now called Analytic Cubism. Moved to the coast of Normandy in France around 1930. Died on August 31, 1963.

Rene Magritte
Born 1898, Lessines, Belgium. He took art classes in Chatelet at just 12 years old. Later, Rene Magritte studied at the Academie des Beaux-Arts in Brussels. In 1922, Rene Magritte married Georgette Berger. Rene Magritte was associated with the Surrealism movement. Rene Magritte Died: 1967, Brussels, Belgium. A consummate technician, his work frequently displays a juxtaposition of ordinary objects in an unusual context, giving new meanings to familiar things. The representational use of objects as other than what they seem is typified in his painting, The Treachery of Images (La trahison des images), which shows a pipe that looks as though it is a model for a tobacco store advertisement. Magritte painted below the pipe, This is not a pipe (Ceci n'est pas une pipe), which seems a contradiction, but is actually true: the painting is not a pipe, it is an image of a pipe.

Leonetto Cappiello Born: 1875, Livorno, Italy. He drew caricatures and sketches in his childhood. Cappiello started his career as a caricaturist illustrating in journals like Le Rire, Le Cri de Paris, Le Sourire, L'Assiette au Beurre, La Baionnette, Femina, and others. Cappiello went on to became a cartoonist and caricaturist. Cappiello made his name during the poster boom period in the early 20th century. Cappiello produced nearly 1000 posters in his life. He died in 1942. He is now often called "the father of modern advertising."

Paul Cezanne Biography
Paul Cézanne: Born: January 19, 1839, Aix-en-Provence, France. Cézanne's work demonstrates a mastery of design, colour, composition and draftsmanship. His often repetitive, sensitive and exploratory brushstrokes are highly characteristic and clearly recognizable. In 1862, Cezanne went to study art in Paris. Cezanne left most of his works unfinished and he destroyed many others. Died in Aix on October 22, 1906. Cézanne can be said to form the bridge between late 19th century Impressionism and the early 20th century's new line of artistic enquiry, Cubism.

Keith Haring
Born: May 4, 1958. Grew up in Kutztown, Pennsylvania. Attended the Ivy School of Professional Art in Pittsburgh. He achieved his first public attention with his chalk drawings in the subways of New York. Haring donated murals to children's hospitals and promoting AIDS awareness. He died in 1990. The Keith Haring Foundation, established in 1989, continues Keith's legacy of giving to children's organizations.

Pop Art
Started in Britain in the 1950s, then spread to America in the 1960's. Pop art focused upon images of the popular culture such as: comic strips, magazine advertisements, and supermarket products. Pop Artists include: Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein, Richard Hamilton, Claes Oldenburg. Pop art is a visual art movement that emerged in the mid 1950s in Britain and in parallel in the late 1950s in the United States.

Pop art in Japan Pop art in Japan is unique and identifiable as Japanese because of the regular subjects and styles. Many Japanese pop artists take inspiration largely from anime, and sometimes ukiyo-e and traditional Japanese art.

Theodore Gericault
Born: 26 Sept, 1791, Paris, France. Gericault was a painter, draughtsman, lithographer and sculptor. He was one of the pioneers of the Romantic movement. Géricault was educated in the tradition of English sporting art by Carle Vernet and classical figure composition by Pierre Guérin, a rigorous classicist. However, he left to study at the Louvre. Known at the time for three paintings he exhibited at the Salon in Paris. Died: 1824.

Mary Cassatt
Born: May 22, 1844, Allegheny City, U.S.A. Mary studied art at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia. Moved to Paris in 1874. Formed a strong friendship with Degas. She participated in the Impressionist exhibitions of 1879, 1880, 1881 and 1886. Died: June 14, 1926, Château de Beaufresne, France. Cassatt often created images of the social and private lives of women, with particular emphasis on the intimate bonds between mothers and children.

Paul Gauguin
Born: June 7, 1848, Paris, France. Gauguin worked as a stockbroker clerk in Paris, but he painted in his free time. He showed in the Impressionist exhibitions from 1879 to 1886. Gauguin attempted suicide in January 1898. He founded his own periodical, "Le Sourire". Died on May 8, 1903. Best known as a painter, his bold experimentation with coloring led directly to the Synthetist style of modern art while his expression of the inherent meaning of the subjects in his paintings, under the influence of the cloisonnist style, paved the way to Primitivism and the return to the pastoral.

Salvador Dalí
Born: May, 11, 1904, Figueras, Catalonia, Spain. Dali is considered to be one of the most impressive artists of the 20th century. Salvador Dalí studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Madrid. He wrote the screenplay for Buñuel's Un Chien Andalou. From 1950 - 65 Dali wrote several books. He described his pictures as "hand-painted dream photographs". Dalí died, Jan. 23, 1989. Salvador Dalí was a skilled draftsman, best known for the striking, bizarre, and beautiful images in his surrealist work. His painterly skills are often attributed to the influence of Renaissance masters. Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquis of Púbol (May 11, 1904 - January 23, 1989), was a Spanish Catalan surrealist painter born in Figueres, Catalonia, Spain. Dalí was a skilled draftsman, best known for the striking and bizarre images in his surrealist work. His painterly skills are often attributed to the influence of Renaissance masters. His best known work, The Persistence of Memory, was completed in 1931. Salvador Dalí's artistic repertoire also included film, sculpture, and photography. Salvador Dalí collaborated with Walt Disney on the unfinished Academy Award-nominated short cartoon Destino, which was completed and released posthumously in 2003. Dalí also collaborated with Alfred Hitchcock on the dream sequence from his 1945 film Spellbound. Widely considered to be greatly imaginative, Dalí had an affinity for doing unusual things to draw attention to himself. This sometimes irked those who loved his art as much as it annoyed his critics, since his eccentric manner sometimes drew more public attention than his artwork. The purposefully-sought notoriety led to broad public recognition and many purchases of his works by people from all walks of life.

Kathe Kollwitz
Born 1867, Konigsberg, East Prussia (now Kalingrad in Russia). Studied art in Berlin. She married Dr Karl Kollwitz. Taught at the Berlin School of Women Artists. Kathe Kollwitz became the first woman elected to the Prussian Academy of Arts. Kathe Kollwitz Died at Moritzburg on 22nd April, 1945. Käthe Schmidt Kollwitz (July 8, 1867 - April 22, 1945) was a German painter, printmaker, and sculptor whose work offered an eloquent and often searing account of the human condition in the first half of the 20th century. Her empathy for the less fortunate, expressed most famously through the graphic means of drawing, etching, lithography, and woodcut, embraced the victims of poverty, hunger, and war. Initially her work was grounded in Naturalism, and later took on Expressionistic qualities.

Augustus Edwin John
Born: 1879, Wales. Studied at the Slade School, London. Among the many people who sat for his portraits include: Elizabeth II, Lloyd George, G. B. Shaw, T. E. Lawrence. It can be said that Augustus Edwin John Lived a nomadic lifestyle. Augustus Edwin John Died in 1961. He became a leader of the New English Art Club, where he chiefly exhibited. With his vivid manner of portraiture and his ability to catch unerringly some striking and usually unfamiliar aspect of his subject, he superseded Sargent as England's fashionable portrait painter. In 1921 he was made a member of the Royal Academy.

Wassily Kandinsky
Born: December 4, 1866, Moscow. Attended the University of Moscow. Later, Wassily Kandinsky moved to Munich, Germany, where he worked under Anton Azbé and Franz von Stuck. Kandinsky helped form the "New Artists" Association in Munich, in 1909. During WWI, Wassily Kandinsky left Germany to return to Russia. Wassily Kandinsky Died: December 13, 1944. Wassily Kandinsky was a Russian painter, printmaker and art theorist. One of the most famous 20th-century artists, he is credited with painting the first modern abstract works. Born in Moscow, Kandinsky spent his childhood in Odessa. As a young man he enrolled at the University of Moscow and chose to study law and economics. Quite successful in his profession he was offered a professorship (chair of Roman Law) at the University of Dorpat he started painting studies (life-drawing, sketching and anatomy) at the age of 30. In 1896 he settled in Munich and studied first in the private school of Anton Abe and then at the Academy of Fine Arts, Munich. He went back to Moscow in 1914 after World War I started. He was unsympathetic to the official theories on art in Moscow and returned to Germany in 1921. There he taught at the Bauhaus school of art and architecture from 1922 until the Nazis closed it in 1933. He then moved to France where he lived the rest of his life, and became a French citizen in 1939. He died at Neuilly-sur-Seine in 1944.

Dame Laura Knight
Born: 1877, Derbyshire. England, UK. Studied at Nottingham School of Art. Married Harold Knight. Together they painted at Staithes. First exhibition was at Leicester Galleries in 1906. Dame Laura Knight was Elected RA in 1936. She was made a Dame in 1929 Dame Laura Knight Died: 1970. Dame Laura Knight, DBE (August 4, 1877 - July 7, 1970) was an English Impressionist painter. Famous for capturing the world of London's theatre district, ballet and the circus, she was a member of the Newlyn School of art and was the first woman artist to be made a Dame of the British Empire.

Tamara De Lempicka
Born (Tamara Gorska), Warsaw, Poland. In 1916, she married "Tadeusz Lempicki". In 1918 they moved to Paris. Tamara studied with Maurice Denis and Andre Lhote. Tamara De Lempicka became a painter of portraits. In 1939 Tamara De Lempicka moved to the US. Tamara De Lempicka Died in 1980, in Mexico. Her distinctive and bold artistic style developed quickly (influenced by what Lhote sometimes referred to as "soft cubism" and by Denis' "synthetic cubism") and epitomized the cool yet sensual side of the Art Deco movement. For her, Picasso "embodied the novelty of destruction". She thought that many of the Impressionists drew badly and employed "dirty" colours. De Lempicka technique would be novel, clean, precise, and elegant. "The Musician" (1929), oil on canvas by Tamara de LempickaFor her first major show, in Milan, Italy in 1925, under the sponsorship of Count Emmanuele Castelbarco, de Lempicka painted 28 new works in six months. She was soon the most fashionable portrait painter of her generation among the haute bourgeoisie and aristocracy, painting duchesses and grand dukes and socialites. Through her network of friends, she was able to display her paintings in the most elite salons of the era. De Lempicka was criticized and admired for her 'perverse Ingrism', referring to her modern restatement of the master Jean_Auguste_Dominique_Ingres, as displayed in her work Group of Four Nudes, 1925. A portrait might take three weeks of work, allowing for the nuisance of dealing with a cranky sitter; by 1927-8 de Lempicka could charge 50,000 French francs per portrait (a sum equal to about US$2,000 then perhaps ten times as much today). Through Castelbarco she was introduced to Italy's great man of letters and notorious lover, Gabriele d'Annunzio. She visited the poet twice at his Lake Garda villa, seeking to paint his portrait; he in turn was set on seduction. After these attempts to secure the commission, she left angered while both she and d'Annunzio remained unsatisfied.

Sir Anthony van Dyck
Born March 22, 1599, Antwerp. Apprenticed to the Flemish painter, Hendrik van Balen. In 1618, admitted to the Antwerp guild of painters. Traveled to Italy from 1620 to 1627. In 1632 he settled in London as chief court painter to King Charles I. He founded the English school of painting. Died December 9, 1641, London. Sir Anthony van Dyck (many variant spellings; 22 March 1599 - 9 December 1641) was a Flemish Baroque artist who became the leading court painter in England. He is most famous for his portraits of King Charles I of England and Scotland and his family and court, painted with a relaxed elegance that was to be the dominant influence on English portrait-painting for the next 150 years. He also painted biblical and mythological subjects, displayed outstanding facility as a draftsman, and was an important innovator in watercolour and etching.

Joan Miro
Born Montroig, Spain, April 20, 1893. Studied art at the Barcelona School of Fine Arts and at the Academia Gali. In 1921 he moved to Paris. From 1940 - 1948, he lived in Spain. In 1954, he was awarded the Graphic Art Prize at the Venice Biennale. In 1967, awarded the Carnegie Prize in Pittsburgh. Died: December 25, Palma de Majorca. Joan Miró i Ferrà (April 20, 1893 - December 25, 1983) was an ethnic Catalan (of Spanish nationality) painter, sculptor and ceramicist born in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. Earning international acclaim, his work has been interpreted as Surrealism, a sandbox for the subconscious mind, a re-creation of the childlike, and a manifestation of Catalan pride. In numerous interviews dating from the 1930s onwards, Miró expressed contempt for conventional painting methods as a way of supporting bourgeoise society, and famously declared an "assassination of painting" in favor of upsetting the visual elements of established painting.

David Jacques Louis
Born: Paris, France, August 30, 1748. Studied under "Joseph Marie Vien". Won David Jacques Louis the Prix de Rome in 1774. David Jacques Louis became a member of the Royal Academy and was given a studio in the Louvre. Imprisoned twice. David Jacques Louis Died on December 29, 1825. Jacques-Louis David (August 30, 1748 - December 29, 1825) was a highly influential French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the prominent painter of the era. In the 1780s his cerebral brand of history painting marked a change in taste away from Rococo frivolity toward a classical austerity and severity, chiming with the moral climate of the final years of the ancien régime. David later became an active supporter of the French Revolution and friend of Maximilien Robespierre, and was effectively a dictator of the arts under the French Republic. Imprisoned after Robespierre's fall from power, he aligned himself with yet another political regime upon his release, that of Napoleon I. It was at this time that he developed his 'Empire style', notable for its use of warm Venetian colours. David had a huge number of pupils, making him the strongest influence in French art of the 19th century, especially academic Salon painting.

Edgar Degas
Born: 1834, Paris, France. In 1852 he set up his studio in the house of his father. From 1853 - 1855 he studied with F. Barrias and L. Lamothe. Attended the College of Art. In 1865 his last history picture was exhibited at the Salon. In 1878 was the first purchase of one of his pictures by a museum. In 1886 he took part in the last group exhibition by the Impressionists. Died, 1917, Paris, France.

Yves Klein
Born: April 28, 1928, Nice. Studied at the "Ecole Nationale de la Marine Marchande" and the "Ecole Nationale des Langues Orientales". Yves Klein composed his first Symphonie monoton in 1947. In 1958, Yves Klein stated nudee models as living paintbrushes. He appeared in the film ,"Mondo Cane"(1962). Yves Klein Died: June 6, 1962, Paris. Klein was born in Nice, in the Alpes-Maritimes department of France. His parents, Fred Klein and Marie Raymond, were both painters. From 1942 to 1946, Klein studied at the École Nationale de la Marine Marchande and the École Nationale des Langues Orientales and began practicing judo. At this time, he became friends with Arman Fernandez and Claude Pascal and started to paint. Klein composed his first Symphonie monotone in 1947. During the years 1948 to 1952, he traveled to Italy, Great Britain, Spain, and Japan. In Japan, he became a master (4th dan) at judo. In 1955, Klein settled permanently in Paris, where he was given a solo exhibition at the Club des Solitaires. His monochrome paintings were shown at the Galerie Colette Allendy and Galerie Iris Clert in Paris, in 1956. In 1960 he founded the New Realism movement along with art critic Pierre Restany. Klein died in Paris of a heart attack in 1962 at the age of 34, shortly before the birth of his son.

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Edward Hopper
Edward Hopper: Born: Nyack, New York, USA. He is best known for interior scenes of isolated figures and rural landscapes. In 1901 he attended the "New York School of Art". Moved to Paris in 1907. He produced almost 70 etchings and drypoints between 1915 and 1928. Best remembered for his realistic depictions of solitude in contemporary American life.

Paul Klee
Born: 1879, Switzerland. Studied art at the Munich Academy in 1900. Paul Klee Settled in Munich in 1906. Klee`s paintings tended to tell stories. Paul Klee Died in 1940. Paul Klee (December 18, 1879 - June 29, 1940) was a Swiss painter of German nationality. He was influenced by many different art styles in his work, including expressionism, cubism, and surrealism. He was a student of orientalism. He and his friend, the Russian painter Wassily Kandinsky, were also famous for teaching at the Bauhaus school of art and architecture.

Alberto Giacometti
Born: 1901, Stampa, Switzerland. Studied in art school in Geneva in 1920. In 1922 he moved to Paris to study under the sculptor Antoine Bourdelle, an associate of Auguste Rodin. It was there that Giacometti experimented with cubism and surrealism and came to be regarded as one of the leading surrealist sculptors. During the 1920's, Giacometti was associated with the Surrealist group. By the mid-1930's, he returned to figurative sculpture. In 1962, Giacometti was awarded the grand prize for sculpture at the Venice Biennale. Died in 1966.

Dame Barbara Hepworth
Born: January 10, Wakefield, Yorkshire, 1903. In 1920 she won a scholarship to Leeds School of Art. Later, she studied sculpture at the Royal College of Art, London. In 1931 she joined the Seven and Five Society. In 1949 she founded the Penwith Society for Arts in Cornwall. Receives CBE in New Year’s Honours List. In 1964 she became a Trustee of the Tate Gallery, London. Died in a fire at her studio in 1975.

Camille Pissarro
(July 10, 1830 - November 13, 1903) was a French Impressionist painter. His importance resides not only in his visual contributions to Impressionism and Post-Impressionism, but also in his patriarchal standing among his colleagues, particularly Paul Cézanne and Paul Gauguin. Jacob-Abraham-Camille Pissarro was born in Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas, to Abraham Gabriel Pissarro, a Portuguese Sephardic Jew, and Rachel Manzana-Pomié, from the Dominican Republic. Pissarro lived in St. Thomas until age 12, when he went to a boarding school in Paris. He returned to St. Thomas where he drew in his free time. Pissarro was attracted to political anarchy, an attraction that may have originated during his years in St. Thomas. In 1852, he traveled to Venezuela with the Danish artist Fritz Melbye. In 1855, Pissarro left for Paris, where he studied at various academic institutions (including the École des Beaux-Arts and Académie Suisse) and under a succession of masters, such as Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, Gustave Courbet, and Charles-François Daubigny. Corot is sometimes considered Pissarro's most important early influence; Pissarro listed himself as Corot’s pupil in the catalogues to the 1864 and 1865 Paris Salons. His finest early works (See Jalais Hill, Pontoise, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York) are characterized by a broadly painted (sometimes with palette knife) naturalism derived from Courbet, but with an incipient Impressionist palette. Pissarro married Julie Vellay, a maid in his mother's household. Of their eight children, one died at birth and one daughter died aged nine. The surviving children all painted, and Lucien, the oldest son, became a follower of William Morris. The Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71 compelled Pissarro to flee his home in Louveciennes in September 1870; he returned in June of 1871 to find that the house, and along with it many of his early paintings, had been destroyed by Prussian soldiers. Initially his family was taken in by a fellow artist in Montfoucault, but by December of 1870 they had taken refuge in London and settled at Westow Hill in Upper Norwood (today better known as Crystal Palace, near Sydenham). Through the paintings Pissarro completed at this time, we can glimpse back to the days when Sydenham was a small satellite town recently connected to the capital by the arrival of the railway. One of the most appreciated of these paintings is a view of St Bartholomew’s Church at the end of Lawrie Park Avenue, commonly known as The Avenue, Sydenham, in the collection of the London National Gallery. Twelve oil paintings date to his stay in Upper Norwood and are listed and illustrated in the catalogue raisonne prepared jointly by his fifth child Ludovic-Rodolphe Pissarro and Lionello Venturi and published in 1939. These paintings include Norwood Under the Snow, and Lordship Lane Station, views of The Crystal Palace relocated from Hyde Park, Dulwich College, Sydenham Hill, All Saints Church, and a lost painting of St. Stephen’s Church. Whilst in Upper Norwood, Pissarro was introduced to the art dealer Paul Durand-Ruel, who bought two of his ‘London’ paintings. Durand-Ruel subsequently became the most important art dealer of the new school of French Impressionism. In 1890 Pissarro returned to England and painted some ten scenes of central London. He came back again in 1892, painting in Kew Gardens and Kew Green, and also in 1897, when he produced several oils of Bedford Park, Chiswick. For more details of his British visits, see Nicholas Reed, "Camille Pissarro at Crystal Palace" and "Pissarro in West London", published by Lilburne Press. Known as the "Father of Impressionism", Pissarro painted rural and urban French life, particularly landscapes in and around Pontoise, as well as scenes from Montmartre. His mature work displays an empathy for peasants and laborers, and sometimes evidences his radical political leanings. He was a mentor to Paul Cézanne and Paul Gauguin and his example inspired many younger artists, including Californian Impressionist Lucy Bacon. Pissarro's influence on his fellow Impressionists is probably still underestimated; not only did he offer substantial contributions to Impressionist theory, but he also managed to remain on friendly, mutually respectful terms with such difficult personalities as Edgar Degas, Cézanne and Gauguin. Pissarro exhibited at all eight of the Impressionist exhibitions. Moreover, whereas Monet was the most prolific and emblematic practitioner of the Impressionist style, Pissarro was nonetheless a primary developer of Impressionist technique. Pissarro experimented with Neo-Impressionist ideas between 1885 and 1890. Discontented with what he referred to as "romantic Impressionism," he investigated Pointillism which he called "scientific Impressionism" before returning to a purer Impressionism in the last decade of his life. In March 1893, in Paris, Gallery Durand-Ruel organized a major exhibition of 46 of Pissarro's works along with 55 others by Antonio de La Gandara. But while the critics acclaimed Gandara, their appraisal of Pissarro's art was less enthusiastic. Pissarro died in Éragny-sur-Epte on either November 12 or November 13, 1903 and was buried in Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris. On his tomb it reads 12 November 1903.

Robert Delaunay
Born: April 12, 1885, Paris, France. Apprenticed in a studio for theater sets in Belleville in 1902. By 1904 he was exhibiting. Served in the military in Laon from 1907 - 08. In 1910, he married Sonia Terk. His first solo at the Galerie Barbazanges, Paris, in 1912. Commissioned to decorate the "Palais des Chemins de Fer" and "Palais de l’Air", at the Paris World’s Fair. Died: October 25, 1941, Montpellier, France.

Juan Gris
Born: March 13, 1887, Madrid. Gris studied mechanical drawing at the Escuela de Artes y Manufacturas in Madrid from 1902 to 1904, during which time he contributed drawings to local periodicals. From 1904 to 1905 he studied painting with the academic artist José Maria Carbonero. He was considered as the "Third Musketeer" of cubism. Moved to Paris and lived next to Picasso. Gris designed costumes and scenery for Serge DIAGHILEV's Ballets Russes. Died in May 11, 1927. His works are closely connected to the emergence of an innovative artistic genre cubism.

Claude Lorrain (originally Claude Gelée)
Born: 1600, Chamagne, France. Claude Lorrain later moved to Rome. Studied under the Italian painter, Agostino Tassi. In 1627 Lorrain returned to Rome. Here, two landscapes made for Cardinal Bentivoglio earned him the patronage of Pope Urban VIII. From about 1637 he rapidly achieved fame as a painter of landscapes and seascapes. He apparently befriended his fellow Frenchman Nicolas Poussin; together they would travel the Roman Campagna, sketching landscapes. Though both have been called landscape painters, in Poussin the landscape is a background to the figures; where as for Lorrain, despite figures in one corner of the canvas, the true subjects are the land, the sea, and the air. By report, he often engaged other artists to paint the figures for him, including Courtois and Filippo Lauri. He remarked to those purchasing his pictures that he sold them the landscape; the figures were gratis. In the 1630s Claude began compiling his "Liber Veritatis", Book of Truth. Claude Lorrain Died: Rome, November 23, 1682.

Willem de Kooning
Born: 1904, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Attended night classes at the Rotterdam Academy of Fine Art. In 1926, Willem de Kooning travelled to New York City as a stowaway. He worked in the Federal Art Project at one stage. In 1948, Willem de Kooning taught at Black Mountain College. He became part of the "Abstract Expressionists". Willem de Kooning Died: March 19, 1997. Willem de Kooning was diagnosed with, in all probability, Alzheimer's disease. After his wife, Elaine, died on February 1, 1989, his daughter, Lisa, and his lawyer, John Eastman were granted guardianship over De Kooning. As the style of his later works continued to evolve into early 1989, his vintage works drew increasing profits; at Sotheby's auctions Pink Lady (1944) sold for US$3.6 million in 1987 and Interchange (1955) brought $20.6 million in 1989.

Thomas Gainsborough
Born: 1727, Sudbury, England. English painter of the 18th century. At 13 he went to London to study. Thomas worked as an assistant to Hubert Gravelot, a French painter. He married Margaret Burr in 1746. In many of his early landscapes, there is influence of Rococo design. In 1759 he moved to Bath. The first notice of his work appeared in the London press In 1762. Throughout the 1760s he exhibited regularly in London. In 1768 he was elected a foundation member of the "Royal Academy". He moved to London In 1774. Commissioned to paint the King and Queen In 1781. He died in 1788 and was buried in Kew churchyard.

Emile Bernard
Born: 1868, Lille. He began his studies at the École des Beaux-Arts. He experimented with impressionism and pointillism. In 1881, he moved to Paris. Registered in the Studio of Cormon. Well traveled artist. His work showed geometric tendencies which hinted at influences of Paul Cézanne, and he collaborated with Paul Gauguin and Vincent van Gogh. His correspondence with these artists is of great art historical interest. Creator of the "synthetic symbolism". Dies in Paris, 1941.

Heinrich Hofmann Biography
Born: Darmstadt, Germany, 1824. Hofmann received his first lessons in art from the copper engraver Ernst Rauch in Darmstadt. Then, in 1842, he entered the Academy of Art in Düsseldorf. Studied in Dusseldorf and the Antwerp Academy. Resided in Italy from 1854-58. Later, he moved to Dresden where he became professor of art in the academy. Much of his work is around scenes from the life of Christ. Hofmann died in 1902. Heinrich Hofmann was one of the pre-eminent painters of his time. The Sunday Strand at that time a very popular British magazine describes him as the most influential contemporary German painter.

William Powell Frith
Born: Alfield, 1819, USA. Studied art at Saint Margaret's School. Later, he attended the Henry Sass Academy in London. Frith started his career as a portrait painter and first exhibited at the British Institution in 1838. In the 1840s he often based works on the literary output of writers such as Charles Dickens, whose portrait he painted, and Laurence Sterne. Appointed an associate of the Royal Academy in 1845, then made a full member in 1853.

Didier Lourenco
Born: 1968, Premia del Mar, Barcelona. Worked in his fathers print studio where he learned the art of lithography. First solo exhibition at Vilassar de Dalt in 1988. Lourenco was awarded Second Prize at the XXXIII Premio de Pintura Joven de la Sala Pares de Barcelona. Won the "Premios Talentos" of the XXXIV Premio de Pintura Joven do la Sala Pares de Barcelona in 1992.

Michelangelo Buonarroti
Born March 6, 1475, Caprese, Italy. At age 13 Michelangelo Buonarroti was apprenticed to Domenico Ghirlandaio. Later, Michelangelo Buonarroti studied sculpture under Bertoldo di Giovanni. He moved to Rome where he carved the Bacchus and then the Pietà which is in St. Peter's basilica in Rome. Returning to Florence Michelangelo Buonarroti began work on the David. The statue was completed in 1504. In 1508 he began work on the Sistine Chapel ceiling frescoes. Michelangelo`s last paintings were the frescoes of the Conversion of St. Paul and the Crucifixion of St. Peter in the Pauline Chapel in the Vatican. Michelangelo Buonarroti died February 18, 1564.

Andre Derain
Born: 1880, Chatou artist colony, just outside Paris. Attended the Academie Carriere in Paris. Derain exhibited his work at the Salon des Independants and the Salon d'Automne. Derain stayed in Paris during most of the German Occupation. He died from shock after being hit by a truck in 1954. His work had often divided informed opinion.

Amedeo Modigliani
Born July 12, 1884, Livorno, Italy. Attended the Reale Istituto di Belle Arti in Venice. Modigliani went to Paris in 1906. Amedeo Modigliani Attended the Académie Colarossi. Exhibited in the "Salon d’Automne" in 1907 and 1912. Exhibited in the "Salon des Indépendants" in 1908, 1910, and 1911. Amedeo Modigliani Died on January 24, 1920, Paris. Amedeo Clemente Modigliani (July 12, 1884 - January 24, 1920) was an Italian artist, practicing both painting and sculpture, who pursued his career for the most part in France. Modigliani was born in Livorno (historically referred to in English as Leghorn), in Northwestern Italy and began his artistic studies in Italy before moving to Paris in 1906. Influenced by the artists in his circle of friends and associates, by a range of genres and art movements, and by primitive art, Modigliani's uvre was nonetheless unique and idiosyncratic. He died in Paris of tubercular meningitis exacerbated by poverty, overworking, and an excessive use of alcohol and narcotics — at the age of 35.

Jean Honoré Fragonard
Born: Grasse, April 5, 1732, France. Apprenticed to Chardin. Later, Boucher accepted him as a student. In 1747, he wins the Prix de Rome . Enrolled at the Ecole Royale des Elèves Protégés in 1753. In 1769, he marries Marie-Anne Gérard. Died: 1806, of a stroke while eating ice cream. Fragonard produced more than 550 paintings (not counting drawing and etchings), of which only five are dated. Among his most popular works are genre paintings conveying the atmosphere of intimacy and veiled eroticism.

Maurits Cornelis Escher
Born: June 17, 1898, Leeuwarden, Netherlands. Studied at the School for Architecture and Decorative Arts. Later, he traveled extensively through France, Italy, Spain. His earlier works were more about realistic portrayals of landscape and architecture. He died in 1972. Known for his often mathematically inspired woodcuts, lithographs and mezzotints which feature impossible constructions, explorations of infinity, architecture, and tessellations.

Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Born February 25, 1841, Limoges, France. Became an apprentice porcelain painter. Later, Renoir started copying famous paintings in the Lourve. Attended the studio of Marc-Gabriel-Charles Gleyer. Renoir had his first success with a painting of the Esmeralda Dancing with her Goat, in 1864. Died: December 3, 1919. Renoir's paintings are notable for their vibrant light and saturated color, most often focusing on people in intimate and candid compositions. The female nude was one of his primary subjects. In characteristic Impressionist style, Renoir suggested the details of a scene through freely brushed touches of color, so that his figures softly fuse with one another and their surroundings. His initial paintings show the influence of the colourism of Eugène Delacroix and the luminosity of Camille Corot. He also admired the realism of Gustave Courbet and Édouard Manet, and his early work resembles theirs in his use of black as a color. As well, Renoir admired Edgar Degas' sense of movement. Another painter Renoir greatly admired was the 18th century master François Boucher

Fauvism Art
Fauves: "les fauves"-wild beasts". Les Fauves (French for The Wild Beasts) were a short-lived and loose grouping of early Modern artists whose works emphasized painterly qualities, and the use of deep color over the representational values retained by Impressionism. Fauvists simplified lines, made the subject of the painting easy to read, exaggerated perspectives and used brilliant but arbitrary colors. They also emphasized freshness and spontaneity over finish. Fauvism: 1898 to 1910. Fauvist paintings often used very bright colours with short blunt brushstrokes. Fauvism Painters included: Henri Matisse, Andre Derain, Georges Braque, and Maurice de Vlaminck.

Pierre Bonnard
Born: October 3, 1867, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France. The son of a prominent official of the French Ministry of War. Attended the Académie Julian. In 1888, he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. In 1889, he joined the group of young painters called "Nabis". In 1891, he showed at the Salon des Indépendants. In 1896, he had his first solo show, at the "Galerie Durand-Ruel". Bonnard is known for his intense use of color, especially via areas built with small brushmarks and close values. His often complex compositions typically of sunlit interiors of rooms and gardens populated with friends and family members—are both narrative and autobiographical. Died on January 23, 1947, France.

Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn
Born Leiden, July 15, 1606. The son of a miller. He started his studies at Latin School. At age 14 he enrolled at the "University of Leiden", but he left to study art. He started with a local master, "Jacob van Swanenburch". Later, he studied with "Pieter Lastman". At just 22, Rembrandt began taking pupils. In 1631, he moved to Amsterdam. In 1634, he married "Saskia van Uylenburgh". His housekeeper, Hendrickje Stoffels, eventually became his common-law wife. She was the model for many of his pictures. Rembrandt declared bankruptcy in 1656. Rembrandt died in Amsterdam, October 4, 1669.

Raoul Dufy
Born: 3 June 1877, LeHavre. Attended night classes at L'cole des Beaux Arts. Later, he attended the cole Nationale Superieure des Beaux Arts. At one stage, he designed fabrics for the dressmaker, Paul Poiret. Was awarded the Painting Prize at the Venice Biennale in 1952. Died on 23 March 1953, Forcalquier, Basses-Alpes. He developed a colourful, decorative style that became fashionable for designs for ceramics, textiles and decorative schemes for public buildings. He is noted for scenes of open-air social events.

Pannini, Giovanni Paolo
Born 1691, Piacenza, Italy. Giovanni Paolo Pannini (or Panini) was the first painter to specialize in ruins. Working in Rome by c. 1717. He taught perspective at the Academie de France in Rome. Died in 1765, Roma. He was one of the most important painters of the 15th century Sienese school. His early works show the influence of earlier Sienese masters, but his later style was more individual, characterized by cold, harsh colours and elongated forms. His style also took on the influence of International Gothic artists such as Gentile da Fabriano and homo. Many of his works have an unusual dreamlike atmosphere, such as the surrealistic Miracle of St. Nicholas of Tolentino painted about 1455 and now housed in the Philadelphia Museum of Art, while his last works, particularly Last Judgment, Heaven, and Hell from about 1465 and Assumption painted in 1475, both at Pinacoteca, Siena, are grotesque treatments of their lofty subjects. Giovanni's reputation declined after his death but was revived in the 20th century.

William Morris
Born 24 March, 1834, Walthamstow, England. British painter, designer, craftsman and poet. William Morris Studied at Oxford. Did a year in architectural practice of G. E. Street. He married Jane Burden. Founded the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings in 1877. William Morris Died: 3 October 1896, Hammersmith, England. William Morris (24 March 1834 - 3 October 1896) was an English artist, writer, and socialist. He was associated with the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, was one of the principal founders of the British Arts and Crafts movement, a pioneer of the socialist movement in Britain, and a writer of poetry, fiction, and translations from the Icelandic. As a co-founder of the domestic design firm Morris & Co., Morris was influential in the resurgence of traditional textile arts in the wake of the industrial revolution, working across a broad spectrum of techniques including tapestry weaving, dyeing with natural dyes, carpet-making, wood-block printing, and embroidery in the style that became known as art needlework. He is also well known as a designer of wallpaper and patterned fabrics and as the founder of the Kelmscott Press.

Sandro Botticelli
Born Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi): Born: 1445, Florence. Served as an apprentice to the painter "Fra Filippo Lippi". By 1470, Botticelli had his own workshop. Even at this early date his work was characterized by a conception of the figure as if seen in low relief, drawn with clear contours, and minimizing strong contrasts of light and shadow which would indicate fully modeled forms. Mostly, Botticelli worked for the great families of Florence. Botticelli painted a number of panels of the Madonna. He was one of several artists chosen to go to Rome to decorate the walls of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican. Died: 1510, Florence.

John Constable
Born: June 11, 1776, East Bergholt, Suffolk. He is known principally for his landscape paintings of Dedham Vale, the area surrounding his home—now known as "Constable Country". Educated at Dedham Grammar School. Later, he attended the Royal Academy in London. He exhibited his first painting in 1802. Constable sold only 20 paintings in his lifetime. In 1829, he was awarded full membership in the Royal Academy. Died on March 31, 1837. His most famous paintings include Dedham Vale of 1802 and The Hay Wain of 1821.

Jean Cocteau
Born: July 5, 1889, France. His versatile, unconventional approach and enormous output brought him international acclaim. His art was influenced by other fields, such as theatre and poetry. A close friend of Picasso. In 1955 Cocteau was made a member of the Académie française and The Royal Academy of Belgium. Died on October 11, 1963, France.

Marc Chagall
Born: 1887 in Vitebsk, Russia. Apprenticed to portrait painter "Pen:. In 1907, he went to St. Petersburg to study at the Imperial School of Fine Arts. Worked in Paris from 1910 until 1914. Chagall became an active participant in the Russian Revolution of 1917. He became Commissar of Fine Arts in Vitebsk in 1917. Chagall made almost two hundred etchings as illustrations for two books. Died in 1985. Chagall took inspiration from Belarusian folk-life, and portrayed many Biblical themes.

Gustave Courbet
Born: 1819, Ornans, France. He led the Realist movement in 19th-century French painting. Courbet learned mainly from copying the earlier masters. His, "The After-dinner at Ornans", won a gold medal in the Salon of 1849. Courbet painted mainly landscapes and portraits. Coubet later became in the politics of the time and was imprisoned. In 1873, he fled to Vevey, Switzerland. Died in 1877. Best known as an innovator in Realism (and credited with coining the term), Courbet was a painter of figurative compositions, landscapes and seascapes.

Eugene Delacroix
Born near Paris in 1798. Apprenticed to painter "Antoine-Jean Gros". In 1822, he exhibited in the Paris Salon. In 1830, he was appointed head of architectural decoration for the city of Paris. In 1833, Delacroix received a commission to paint a group of murals at the Palais Bourbon. Died in 1863. Delacroix's studio in Paris now serves as a museum to his life. Delacroix's use of expressive brushstrokes and his study of the optical effects of color profoundly shaped the work of the Impressionists, while his passion for the exotic inspired the artists of the Symbolist movement.

Mondrian Piet
Born 1872. Studied at the academy in Amsterdam. Founder of the DeStijl movement in 1917. In 1940, he moved to New York. Died 1944. He was an important contributor to the De Stijl art movement and group, which was founded by Theo van Doesburg. He evolved a non-representational form which he termed Neo-Plasticism. This consisted of a grid of vertical and horizontal black lines and the use of the three primary colours.

Le Corbusier (Born Charles Edouard Jeanneret)
Born: 1887. He is famous for his contributions to what now is called modernism, or the International Style. He was a pioneer in theoretical studies of modern design and was dedicated to providing better living conditions for the residents of crowded cities. Rechristened himself Le Corbusier in Paris in 1920. Co-founder of the Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM). In 1905, he worked on his first project, the Villa Fallet. Architecture teacher in La Chaux de Fonds. In 1923, he published his book, Towards a New Architecture.

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